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Entrepreneurship . Chapter 14 Franchising, Licensing, and Harvesting: Cashing in Your Brand. Sell Sell to others Merge Maintain Close Cease Operations Bankrupt. Grow Internal growth Acquire other companies License your brand Franchise. What do You Want from Your Business?.

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Chapter 14

Franchising, Licensing, and Harvesting: Cashing in Your Brand

what do you want from your business

Sell to others




Cease Operations



Internal growth

Acquire other companies

License your brand


What do You Want from Your Business?
growth through replication
Growth through Replication
  • Licensing = “renting” you brand or other intellectual property to sell your products
  • Franchising = replicating the business formula through others
focus your brand
Focus Your Brand
  • A name, term, sign, logo, design that identifies a product/service
  • Represents a promise to consistently meet customer expectations
  • Tightly focused brands  better performance
  • Line Extension = using an established brand to promote different kinds of products
    • Can work if brand is very strong & new products relate well
    • Potential damage if products don’t reinforce the brand

Diversification can unfocus the company & damage the brand.

  • Licensor—sells license, which “rents” the right to use the licensor’s company name.
  • Licensee—pays fee for the license & may also pay royalties (percentage of sales) to licensor.
  • Licensing is effective when it does not tarnish image of licensee’s own company or products.


  • Pros
    • Can expand without huge capital investment
    • Earn royalties
  • Cons
    • Franchisee may fail to operate franchise correctly, tarnishing reputation
    • Many federal, state regulations
    • Franchisees who fail may try to sue
    • Costly to become a franchisor
franchise research
Franchise Research
  • Do your research before you decide to franchise your business
  • Consult with a franchise attorney
  • Visit the International Franchise Association & the American Association of Franchisee & Dealers Web sites
  • Create a Franchise Agreement
the franchise agreement
The Franchise Agreement
  • Contract between franchisor & franchisee
  • Defines
    • Standards of quality & performance
    • Royalty rates
    • Duration of the contract
  • Assigns territories to prevent franchisees from competing with each other
harvesting exiting
Harvesting & Exiting
  • Harvesting = obtaining cash or stock by selling, public offering, or merger of company you founded
    • Usually takes at least 10 years to be ready
    • Founder may remain with the business in the case of a merger
  • Exiting = leaving the business through closure, liquidation or bankruptcy
    • Loaded with debt
    • No product or service of lasting value
how to value a business
How to Value a Business
  • Popular methods of valuation:
    • Book value = Assets - Liabilities
      • Most common method
    • Future earnings = estimated future earnings stream
      • Best for businesses that are growing quickly
    • Market-based = P/E Ratio x Estimated Future Net Earnings
      • P/E = company stock price/earnings per share
      • Applies only to publicly traded stocks
harvesting options
Harvesting Options
  • Increase free cash flows
  • Management buy-out (MBO)
  • Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP)
  • Merging or being acquired
  • Initial public offering (IPO)
exit strategies for investors
Exit Strategies for Investors
  • Acquisition = someone buys the corporation & they are bought out or paid back
  • Earn out = investors are bought out with company cash flow over time
  • Debt-equity exchange = trade equity for portions of debt over time to change lenders into owners
  • Merger = value is created through combining with another company
investors exit strategies
Investors & Exit Strategies
  • Investors care about your exit strategy because it will affect their investment & how they will eventually get their ROI.
  • Spell out your exit strategy in your business plan. Simply claiming you will “go public” is not adequate.