Developing appropriate behavior with fading
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Developing Appropriate Behavior with Fading. Chapter 9. Fading. Fading Gradual change over successive trials of a stimulus that controls a response so that the response eventually occurs to a partially changed or completely new stimulus

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Fading l.jpg
Fading

  • Fading

    • Gradual change over successive trials of a stimulus that controls a response so that the response eventually occurs to a partially changed or completely new stimulus

    • Process of slowly removing prompts after behavior is established

    • Involved in everyday situations in which one person teaches a behavior to another person


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Fading

  • Useful in situation in which a stimulus exerts strong control of that response to some other stimulus

  • Advantages over trial and error procedures:

    • Errors consume time

    • If error occurs, it tens to occur many times, even though it is being extinguished

    • Nonreinforcement of errors (extinguishing of errors) produces emotional side effects


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Dimensions of Stimuli for Fading

  • Fading occurs along dimensions of stimuli

  • Dimension – any characteristic that can be measured on some continuum

  • Fading can occur across specific stimulus dimensions and across changes in general situation or setting

    • Ex: physical structure of room; number of other people present


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Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Fading

  • Choosing the final desired stimulus

    • Stimulus want to evoke or produce the behavior at the end of the fading procedure

    • Important to select stimulus that will be maintained in natural environment


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Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Fading

  • Choosing the starting stimulus – prompt

    • Stimulus that reliably evokes the desired behavior

    • Teacher behavior as prompts

      • Physical prompts/physical guidance – touching the learner to guide him appropriately

      • Gestural prompts - pointing, making motions without touching, etc.

      • Modeling prompts – demonstrating correct behavior

      • Verbal prompts – verbal hints or cues

    • Environmental alterations as prompts

      • Altering the physical environment to evoke desired response

    • Extra-stimulus vs within-stimulus prompts

      • Extra-stimulus – something that is added

      • Within-stimulus – alterations to the SD or S∆ to make them more noticeable and easier to discriminate


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Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Fading

  • Choosing the fading steps

    • Should be chosen carefully

    • Need to monitor performance to determine the speed of fading

    • If student begins making errors, prompts may have been faded too quickly or with too few steps

      • May need to backtrack


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Guidelines for Effective Application of Fading

  • Choose final desired stimulus

  • Set an appropriate reinforcer

  • Choose the starting stimulus and fading steps

  • Put plan into effect