Darwin and Evolution. Charles Darwin 1809-1882. Young Darwin. H.M.S. Beagle. Captain Fitzroy, commander of the Beagle.
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Charles Darwin 1809-1882
Very conscious of the stressful loneliness of command and of the suicide both of Captain Stokes and of his uncle Viscount Castlereagh, who had cut his own throat in 1822 while in government office, he approached Beaufort in August 1831 and asked him to find a suitable gentleman companion for the voyage. Such a companion should share his scientific tastes, make good use of the expedition's opportunities for naturalism research, dine with him as an equal, and provide a semblance of normal human friendship. While those Beaufort first approached turned the opportunity down, FitzRoy eventually approved Charles Darwin for the position. Before they left England FitzRoy gave Darwin a copy of the first volume of Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology, a book the captain had read that explained terrestrial features as the outcome of a gradual process taking place over extremely long periods.
One year later, the Beagle returned the three surviving Fuegians home, still captained by FitzRoy and at great expense to himself. He took with him a young naturalist, Charles Darwin, in what was the second voyage of HMS Beagle.
After initial difficulty recalling his language and customs, Jemmy was soon out of his European clothes and habits. A few months after his arrival, he was seen emaciated, naked save for a loincloth and long-haired. Nevertheless, he declined the offer to return to England, which Darwin conjectured was due to the presence of his "young and nice looking wife", Lassaweea. It appears that he and the others had taught their families some English
When The Origin of Species was published FitzRoy was dismayed and apparently felt guilty for his part in the theory's development. He was in Oxford on 30 June 1860 to present a paper on storms and attended the meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science at which Samuel Wilberforce attacked Darwin's theory. During the debate FitzRoy, seen as "a grey haired Roman nosed elderly gentleman", stood in the centre of the audience and "lifting an immense Bible first with both and afterwards with one hand over his head, solemnly implored the audience to believe God rather than man". As he admitted that The Origin of Species had given him "acutest pain", the crowd shouted him down
Species Over-reproduce + population sizes remain constant
High mortality + universal variation
Survival of most fit + environmental change
change through time = Evolution
How to reconstitute variation??
answer, comes after 1900 with discovery of genetics – see next lecture
Fact of Evolution vs Theory of Evolution
Theory = what was the mechanism?
Fact = did evolution occur? Accepted by most soon after publication
Fact accepted because it explained a lot of observations
Theodosius Dobzhansky: “Nothing makes sense except in the light of Evolution
Backlash: cooperation vs competition = struggle for existence vs cooperation
2. how can a small change be selected for?