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Current Model of the Atom. current model based on quantum theory electrons exist in probability clouds called orbitals electrons do NOT orbit nucleus in circular pattern How can we keep track of the electrons?. Notation.

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current model of the atom
Current Model of the Atom
  • current model based on quantum theory
  • electrons exist in probability clouds called orbitals
  • electrons do NOT orbit nucleus in circular pattern
  • How can we keep track of the electrons?
notation
Notation
  • Shells are designated by the principal quantum number n (n=1, n=2, etc.) (bigger n means larger shell) {analogy is floors in apartment building}
  • Each shell is divided into subshells (called s, p, d, f, etc.) (n=1 has s; n=2 has s & p; n=3 has s, p, & d; n=4 has s, p, d, & f) that tell about the shape {analogy is apartments on a floor}
s orbitals
s-orbitals

1s

2s

All s subshells contain a single orbital called an s orbital. Every s orbital is spherical; the difference between a 1s, 2s, 3s, etc. is the size.

p orbitals
p-orbitals

All p subshells contain three orbitals called

p orbitals, one on each of the three axes.

Every p orbital is dumbbell shaped; the

difference between 2p, 3p, 4p, etc. is the size.

d orbitals
d-orbitals

All d subshells contain five orbitals called

d orbitals.

The difference between 3d, 4d, etc. is the size.

notation6
Notation
  • Shells are designated by the principal quantum number n (n=1, n=2, etc.) (bigger n means larger shell) {analogy is floors in apartment building}
  • Each shell is divided into subshells (called s, p, d, f, etc.) (n=1 has s; n=2 has s & p; n=3 has s, p, & d; n=4 has s, p, d, & f) {analogy is apartments on a floor}
  • Each subshell contains orbitals (s has 1, p has 3, d has 5, f has 7) {analogy is rooms in an apartment}
  • Each orbital can contain no more than 2 electrons (“spin up” and “spin down”) {analogy is roommates in a room}
slide7

An electron configuration shows the distribution of electrons among the subshells of an atom. Fill in order shown (max 2 electrons for s, 6 for p, 10 for d, 14 for f)

6s 6p 6d 6f

5s 5p 5d 5f

4s 4p 4d 4f

3s 3p 3d

2s 2p

1s

slide8

Give the full electron configuration for. . .

H

1s1

Li

1s22s1

O

1s22s22p4

Ni

1s22s22p63s23p64s23d8

slide11

Give the full electron configuration for. . .

Li

1s22s1

Na

1s22s22p63s1

K

1s22s22p63s23p64s1

The electrons in the outer most shell are

called the valence electrons. Electrons in the

inner shells are core electrons.

slide12

valence electrons

valence electrons

Give the electron configuration, and determine

the number of valence electrons for. . .

F

1s22s22p5

P

1s22s22p63s23p3