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CP684 Attention & Automaticity : principles and applications. “Orientation reflex” - controlled / purposeful attention Selective Attention Filter Theory Attenuation Theory Late selection theory Multimode Theory Attention, Capacity and Mental Effort Divided Attention

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cp684 attention automaticity principles and applications
CP684 Attention & Automaticity:principles and applications
  • “Orientation reflex” - controlled / purposeful attention
  • Selective Attention
    • Filter Theory
    • Attenuation Theory
    • Late selection theory
    • Multimode Theory
    • Attention, Capacity and Mental Effort
  • Divided Attention
  • Automaticity and Effects of Practice
methodology
Methodology
  • Biaurial listening tasks very difficult
    • two messages
    • into both ears simultaneously
  • Dichotic listening tasks much easier
    • same simultaneous two messages (inputs)
    • but each is sent into only one ear
  • “Coctail party” phenomenon
  • Cherry (1953):Simultaneous inputs separated at the stage of sensory reception (two different ears, or different colours or even modalities) are easier to focus on!
filter theory
Filter Theory
  • Broadbent (1958): attentional filter (bottleneck)sensory register selective filter detection device working memory
  • preattentive analysis (Neisser, 1967)
  • pop-out effects
attenuation model
Attenuation model
  • Problems with Filter: not everything is blocked
  • Moray (1959): important material (eg, your name, alarms / emergency signals ) CAN penetrate the filter
  • Treisman (1960, 1964): turning down - not blocking - of unattended material
a treisman s attenuation model sensory register selective filter detection device working memory
A.Treisman’s Attenuation modelsensory register selective filter detection device working memory
late selection models
Late Selection Models
  • Deutch & Deutch (1963) - Further extension by Norman, (1968):
  • all messages are processed for meaning! -
  • the one to respond to is selected relatively “late” in processing
attention capacity mental effort
Attention, Capacity & Mental Effort
  • not a filter but a spotlight
  • capable of refocusing resources
  • Kahneman (1973): Attention & Effort Model
  • focus depends on
    • arousal (= state of alertness)
    • taks demands
    • “resource allocation policy”
      • enduring dispositions
      • momentary intentions
  • Predicted: we pay more attention to things
    • we are interested in
    • we are in the mood for
    • we judge to be important
slide9

Divided AttentionSpelke, Hirst & Neisser (1976):“if Attenntion is a flexible system for allocating resources, and if tasks differ in the amount of required attention, then pepole should be able to perform two (or more) tasks at once”

slide10
Divided Attention Spelke, Hirst & Neisser (1976):reading speeds duting practice phase off learning to do two things at once
automaticity and effects of practice
Automaticity and Effects of Practice
  • The Stroop Effect: name colours below!blueredbrowngreenpurple
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