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Computer Game Development By Jijun Tang People Instructor: Jijun Tang TA: None, the dept. is too poor to support one Room: 3A63 Email: jtang@cse.sc.edu Phone: (803) 777-8923 Web Site etc. www.cse.sc.edu/~jtang/CSE552S 10 Will create a forum/group to share ideas and questions

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People

  • Instructor: Jijun Tang

  • TA: None, the dept. is too poor to support one

  • Room: 3A63

  • Email: jtang@cse.sc.edu

  • Phone: (803) 777-8923


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Web Site etc.

  • www.cse.sc.edu/~jtang/CSE552S10

  • Will create a forum/group to share ideas and questions

  • Will accept emails for questions and suggestions


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Grading

  • No exam

  • One big project (70%):

    • Group of 4, you pick your own group.

    • Finish a 2D/3D game using existing engines.

    • 50% points for the programming part, including the final presentation

    • 20% for intermediate presentations


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Presentations

  • 2 intermediate presentations:

    • 1st presentation is about the overall design, seek approval from the class

    • 2nd presentation is about the detailed design, check any missing part and discuss possible problems

  • Final presentation will be an open demo

    • Good to show off

    • With food


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Homework

  • 30%, 6-7 homework total

  • Some are simple, like doing a survey

  • Some are complex, for example to create a flash game


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Game Development 2010

Game History


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Game History

  • First game: William Higinbotham

    • 1958

    • Analog computer

    • An isolated incident

  • Inpsiration: Steve “Slug” Russell

    • 1961 as a student in MIT

    • DEC PDP-1 (18 bit) $120,000





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Magnavox Odyssey (1972)

  • 1967-1968, Ralph Baer

  • Light gun and shooting

  • Brown Box, the first home video game console

  • Sold to Magnavox



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Nolan Bushnell and Atari (1972)

  • Computer Space machines

  • Atari company

  • Arcade games

  • Pong: first popular video game


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Pong and Arcade

Computer Space


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Atari 2600, 1977

Able to support many games

Cartridge-based Console (1977)


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Crash (1983)

  • Poor games

    • Pac-Man on console

    • E.T. ($20 Million for the right)

  • Too many cartridges

  • Rebirth, with Japanese companies

    • Nintendo Entertainment System (8 bit) from Nintendo

    • Miyamoto’s Mario


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NES (90% market)

NES

Mario

Gameboy

contra



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Sega

  • Sega Master System (1985)

    • 16 bit

    • Genesis

  • Saturn (1994)

    • Not successful, but can add modem

  • Dreamcast (1999)

    • Built-in modem, 128-bit graphics

    • Last from Sega


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Sega Systems

Master System

Saturn


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Playstation

  • Playstation I

    • Sony (1994-1995)

    • CD form

  • Playstation II (2000)

    • DVD

    • Strong third party support

  • Playstation III (2006)


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Playstation I

Final Fantasy

Grand Theft Auto


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Xbox

  • Microsoft has been in game for long

    • Flight simulator

    • Age of Empires

  • Microsoft (2001)

    • PC architecture

    • Xbox Live

    • Xbox 360 (2006)—loosing big money



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Designers

  • Will Wright

    • SimCity

    • The Sims

  • Sid Meier

    • Pirates!

    • Railroad Tycoon

    • Civilization

  • Ken & Roberta Williams

    • Adventure games: Quest

    • half-Life

  • Richard Garriott

    • RPG games

    • Ultima


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Old Legendary Games

  • Pac-Man

  • Tetris

  • Final Fantasy

  • Pokémon

  • Doom


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Studios

  • MS (flight simulator, AE)

  • Electronic Arts (publisher)

  • Interplay

  • LucasArts

  • Blizzard (Warcraft)

  • Id Software (DOOM)


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Types

  • Adventure (text-based/graphical)

  • Action (shooting, combat sim)

    • First-person shooting

    • Combat sim

    • Action adventure

    • Platformer (Mario)

    • Fighting

    • Real-time strategy (RTS)

    • Survival Horror


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Types

  • Role Playing Game (RPG)

  • Stealth

  • Simulation

    • SimCity

    • Flight Simulator

    • Train Simulator

  • Racing

  • Sports


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Types

  • Rhythm

    • Dance Dance Revolution

  • Puzzle

    • Tetris

  • Education

    • Typing

    • NSF funds many such games



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Languages

  • Assembly

  • C/C++

  • VB

  • Java

  • Flash

  • Script


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Types of Players (from wiki)

  • Casual gamer: A person who enjoys playing games with simple rules or which do not require large blocks of time to play, may even not consider him/herself as a gamer

  • Hardcore gamer: spends much of their leisure time playing games.

    • Competitive gamer: plays games for the enjoyment of competing with other players.

    • Retrogamer: enjoys playing or collecting vintage video games from earlier eras.

    • Glitcher: enjoys finding flaws in a game or finding ways to exploit unintentional features.

  • Professional Gamer: plays games for money

    • Game tournament

    • Receive prizes

    • Cyberathlete Professional League



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ESA

  • Entertainment Software Association

  • www.theesa.com


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Industry Facts

  • Facts: $57 billion software sale globally in 2008, 68 billion in 2012??

  • US: grew 23% to $11.7 billion in 2008, quadrupling since 1996

  • 25% age 50+ play video game (9% in 1999)

  • 68% households play games

  • Average player is 35 years old and has been playing games for 12 years

  • 84% games are E, 10+ and T rated


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Sales

From ESA



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Who and what

From ESA


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Genre info

From ESA


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Online game

From ESA


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How to Interpret the Data

  • Pro-data:

    • Do as data suggests

    • Why: the failure of targeting pre-teen female market

  • Anti-data:

    • Explore un-charted territory

    • Target older audience on Xbox?

    • Real Time Strategy on Xbox?

    • Shooting game for moms?


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Entertainment Software Rating Board

Self-regulated rating board

ESRB

From ESA


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Why Rating? Example: Conker

  • Animated Violence, Mature Sexual Themes, Strong Language

  • Age 17+

  • Seven different worlds with 60+ sub-chapters to explore

  • Massive multiplayer mode

  • Easy to confuse parents and buy for young kids




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Sega’s Night Trap (1992)

Controversial Games



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Teaching how to hi-jack?

Grand Theft Auto


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Hot Coffee Mod

  • Hidden sexual mini-game in Grand Auto Theft San Andreas

  • Can be unlocked by changing one bit in the main.scm file

  • Who created the scene?

  • Re-rating and recall, lost $300M, numerous lawsuits.

  • Who’s responsibility? Rockstar? Modifier? End users?



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Game and Violence

  • Study from National Institute on Media and the Family

  • Concerns

    • Children are more likely to imitate the actions of a character with whom they identify. In violent video games the player is often required to take the point of view of the shooter or perpetrator.

    • Video games by their very nature require active participation rather than passive observation.

    • Repetition increases learning. Video games involve a great deal of repetition. If the games are violent, then the effect is a behavioral rehearsal for violent activity.

    • Rewards increase learning, and video games are based on a reward system.


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Concerns Warranted?

  • Exposure to violent games increases physiological arousal  

  • Exposure to violent games increases aggressive thoughts

  • Exposure to violent games increases aggressive emotions

  • Exposure to violent games increases aggressive actions

  • Exposure to violent games decreases positive prosocial (i.e., helping) actions


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Evidence against Linking Games and Violence

  • Violent crime, particularly among the young, has decreased dramatically since the early 1990s, whilevideo games have steadily increased in popularity and use.

  • Many games with violent content sold in the U.S. -- and some with far more violence -- are also sold in foreign markets.  However, the level of violent crime in these foreign markets is considerably lower than that in the U.S

  • Numerous authoritieshave examined the scientific record and found that it does not establish any causal link between violent programming and violent behavior.

  • The above are claims from theesa.com


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Results on 9th Grader

By David Walsh



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Culture Issues

  • Culture acceptance is hard to predict

  • Stereotypes

    • may backfire

    • but also may pay-off, should we avoid?

  • Foreign policies

    • Try to understand other cultures

    • Have some sensitivities

  • Culture acceptance is hard to predict


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Requirements of Our Projects

  • We will mimic ESRB and rate your games (E, 10+ or T)

  • Vote from the class

  • Please do some research about your games: culture issue, violence? IP?

  • Avoid controversies


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MMORPG

  • Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game

  • World of Warcraft (8M worldwide, 2M North America, 1.5M Europe, 3.5M China)

  • NavyField

  • MUD (Multi-User Dungeon)

  • Counter Strike: online first person shooter game (>200K simultaneously)

  • EverQuest

  • Second Life (virtual world)



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Society Issues with Online Games

  • Improve society and provide fun

  • Some people make a living through adding stuff to online games

  • Bad things can happen

    • Play too much, mess real life or cannot separate real from virtual

    • Security problems, cheating, hacking

  • Deindividuation

  • In-game regulatory tools