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Industrial Training Institute Amreli. C.O.E. Module B.B.B.T : 5 Generation , Transmission and Distribution ( Duration : 8 week.)

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slide1

Industrial Training Institute Amreli.

C.O.E.

Module B.B.B.T : 5

Generation , Transmission and Distribution

( Duration : 8 week.)

Prepared by : P.M. Vaghasiya.

slide2

Introduction of energy.

  • Generation of electrical energy.
  • Importance of electrical energy.
  • Types of energy.
slide3

Introduction of Electricity.

Important data of an Atom

ELECTRONE

PROTON

NEUTRONE

slide4

Source of electricity

  • Alternator.
  • D.C. Generator
  • Battery.
  • Thermocouple.
slide5

Source of energy.

  • The various type energy source.
  • Fuels.
  • Energy storage of water.
  • Nuclear energy.
  • Wind energy.
  • Tidal energy.
  • Solar energy.
  • Geothermal energy.
  • Thermo electric power.
slide6

Power Generation system.

  • Thermal Power Generation system.
  • Hydro electric Power Generation system.
  • Nuclear Power Generation system.
  • Diesel Power Generation system.
  • Non conventional energy power Generation system.
slide7

Major Thermal power station in Gujarat state.

  • Place Number of Unit. Total capacity
  • Dhuvaran 4×63.5 588 MW

2×140.0

2×27 ( Gas Turbine)

2.Vanakbori. 6×210 1260 MW.

3.Utran. 13×3 39 MW.

4.Ghandhinager. 2×120 450 MW.

1×210

5.Shikka. 1×120 120 MW.

slide8

Major Thermal power station in Gujarat state.

  • Place Number of Unit. Total capacity
  • Ukai. 2×120 850 MW

2×200

1×210

2.Ahemedabad. 4×9 410MW.

(Torrent power) 1×20

1×24

3×110

Panedhro . 1×70 70 MW.

slide9

Major Hydro & nuclear power station in Gujrat state

  • Types of power Name of Total

capacity.

Station place. In MW.

  • Hydro power Kdana 60 MW

station.

Ukai 305 MW

  • Nuclear power Kakrapar 125 MW

station.

slide12

Mechanical equipment in Thermal power station.

BOILER

SUPER HEATER

ECONOMISER

AIR PREHEATER

TURBINE

CONDENSER

slide14

Working diagram Thermal power station.

Working diagram of thermal power station.

slide15

working diagram of Thermal power station.

Working diagram Thermal power station.

slide18

Classification of Hydro electric power station.

  • Classification on head.
  • High head plant ( < 300 m.)
  • Medium head plant. (60m to 300 m.)
  • Low head plant. ( > 60m.)
  • Classification on water condition
  • Flaw of water plant.
  • Storage of water plant.
  • Pump storage water plant.
slide19

Classification of Hydro electric power station.

  • Classification on operation.
  • Manual plant.
  • Automatic plant.
  • Classification on type of load.
  • Base load plant.
  • Peak load plant.
slide20

Element of Hydro power station,

  • Reservoir.
  • Catchments area.
  • Dam.
  • (a) Earthen dam.
  • (b) Masonry dam.
  • (c) Concrete dam.
  • 4. Spill ways.
  • 5. Screen.
  • 6. Fore bay or Intake.
slide21

Element of Hydro power station,

7. Tunnel.

8. Penstock or pipe line.

9. Surge tower.

10. Draft tube.

11. Tail race.

12. Fish passes.

13. Turbine.

slide22

Different type schemes of Hydro power plant.

1.High head schemes.

2.Medium head schemes.

3.Low head schemes.

slide23

Different type of turbine use in hydro power station

1.High head schemes. (Impulse turbine-pelton wheel)

2.Medium head schemes. (reaction turbine )

3.Low head schemes. (propeller turbine )

slide25

Hydro electric power plant.`

Construction of Turbine.

Inlet

outlet

Impulse turbine for High head plant.

slide28

Hydro electric power plant.`

Propeller turbine for low head plant.

slide40

Advantage of Hydro power station.

  • The plant is simple in construction,rubust and required low maintenance.
  • It can be put in the service instantly.
  • It can respond to changing loads without any difficulty.
  • There are no stand by losses.
  • The running charges are very small.
  • No fuels is burnt.
  • The plant is quite neat and clean.
  • The water after running the turbine can be used for irrigation and other purpose.
slide41

Disadvantage of Hydro power station.

  • The capital cost of generators, civil engineering work etc.
  • High cost of transmission lines.
  • Long dry seasons may effect the delivery of power.
slide42

Selection of site for Hydro electric power station.

  • sufficient quantity of water at a reasonable head should be available.
  • The site should allow for strong foundations with minimum cost.
  • There should be no possibility of future source of leakage of water.
  • The selected site should be accessible easily.
  • There should be possibility of stream diversion during construction period.
  • The reservoir to be constructed should have large catchments area, so that the water in it should never full below the minimum level.
generation of heat in nuclear power reactor
Generation of heat in nuclear power reactor.

Nuclear power station.`

NUCLEAR FUSION

NUCLEAR FISSION

fuels used in reactor
Fuels used in Reactor.

Nuclear power station.`

URENIUM U235

URENIUM U233

PLUTONIUM

Pu 239

slide46

Nuclear power station.`

Types of nuclear reactor.

BOILING WATER

REACTOR

PRESURISED

WATER REACTOR

HEAVY WATER

COOLED REACTOR

GAS COOLED

REACTOR

FAST BRIDER

REACTOR

slide47

Nuclear power station.`

Main element of nuclear reactor.

CORE

MODERATOR

CONTROL

RODS

REFLECTOR

COOLANT

SHIELD

slide48

Nuclear power station.`

Pressurized water nuclear reactor.

slide55

Use of Solar energy .

Photovoltaic conservation system.

SOLARCOLLECTOR

& WATCHES

BATTERY CHARGING

COMMUNICATIN

NAVIGATION,RAIL

WAY, SIGNAL, ETC.

SOLAR TUBE LIGHT

TV,ETC.

DOMESTIC ELCT,

APPLIANCES.

FOR SPACE CRAFT

ELECTRICITY.

slide56

Use of solar energy.

  • Direct method.
  • Photovoltaic conservation.
  • Thermal conservation.
  • Solar water heating.
  • Solar air heating.
  • Solar drying.
  • Solar pumping.
  • Solar furnace.
  • Solar space heating.
slide57

Use of solar energy.

  • Indirect method.
  • Wind energy.
  • Tidal energy.
  • Biomass energy.
  • Geothermal energy.
  • Photosynthesis energy.
  • Hydraulic energy.
slide61

Wind power energy.

  • Application of wind mill.
  • For water pumping.
  • For producing electric power.
  • For running flour mill.
  • As stand by energy source.
  • For running domestic appliances & lighting.
  • For battery charging.
  • Combining with solar generation system to supply additional power.
slide67

Types of transmission line

  • A.C. transmission line.
  • A.C. three phase three wire system.
  • A.C. three phase four wire system.
  • A.C. single phase two wire system.
  • Mid point earth type A.C.single phase two wire system.
  • D.C. transmission line.
  • D.C. two wire system.
  • Mid point earth type D.C. two wire system.
slide69

Element of transmission system.

  • Step –up transformer.
  • Line support.
  • Line insulator.
  • Conductor.
  • Step-down transformer.
  • Protective device.
  • Regulator.
slide72

Transmission and Distribution supply system.

Generating station.

Transmission system

Step-up x’mer

Receiving station.

Distribution system.

slide74

Main components of over head line.

Conductor.

Line support.

Line insulator.

Earth wire.

slide75

Characteristic of conductor materials.

  • High conductivity.
  • High tensile strength.
  • Low specific gravity.
  • Low cost.
  • Long working life.
  • Should not be brittle.
slide76

Characteristic of line support .

  • Low weight.
  • High mechanical strength.
  • High accessibility.
  • Low cost.
  • Long working life.
slide82

Type of insulator use in power system.

  • Pin type insulator.
  • Suspension type insulator.
  • Strain type insulator.
  • Shackle type insulator.
  • Egg or Stay insulator.
slide85

Factor affecting in corona losses.

  • Condition of the corona effect.
  • Potential difference is two conductor.
slide86

Method use in reducing corona losses.

*Use of bundle

Conductor.

*Increase of conductor

Diameter.

slide87

Factor affecting sag.

  • Weight of conductor.
  • Span between two poles.
  • Working tensile strength.
  • Ice- coating.
  • Wind pressure.
  • Tem pressure.
slide92

Classification cable.

  • Low voltage (L.T) cable. Operating voltage up to 1 KV.
  • High voltage (H.T.) cable. operating voltage up to 11 KV.
  • Super tension (S.T.) cable. Operating voltage up to 33 KV.
  • H-type cable.
  • S.L. type cable.
  • H.S.L. type cable.
  • Extra high tension (E.H.T.) cable.opertaing voltage up to 66 KV.
  • Extra super tension voltage cable. Operting voltage up to 132 KV.
slide94

UNDER GROUND CABLE

Core

Belted paper

Lead sheath

Bedding

Single wire armoring

Overall Serving

slide95

Types of Cable.

  • Oil filled cables.

(A) Single core oil filled cables used up to 132 KV.

(B) Three core oil filled cables used up to 66 KV.

  • Gas pressure cables.

(A) External pressure cables.

(B) Internal pressure cable.

(a) High pressure gas filled cable.

(b) Gas cushion cable.

(c) Impregnated pressure cable

slide96

Various type insulating materials in used in cable.

  • Rubber.
  • Vulcanized India rubber. (V.I.R.).
  • Impregnated paper.
  • Varnished cambric.
  • Polyvinyl chloride.
  • Silk and cotton.
  • Enamel insulation.
slide97

Properties of insulating materials for cable.

  • High resitivity.
  • High dielectric strength.
  • Low thermal co-efficient.
  • Low water absorption.
  • Low permittivity.
  • Non – inflammable.
  • Chemical stability.
  • High mechanical strength.
  • High viscosity at impregnation temperature.
  • Capability to with stand high rupturing voltage.
  • High tensile strength and plasticity.
slide99

Fault which are likely to occurs in cable.

  • Insulating fail between line and earth.
  • Insulating fail between two core.
  • Open circuit fault.
slide101

Function of Substation.

  • The main functions of sub-station are to receive energy transmitted at high voltage from the generating station, reduce to a value appropriate for local distribution and provide facilities for switching.
slide104

The main equipment for Substation.

  • Main bus-bar.
  • Isolator.
  • Insulator.
  • Circuit breaker.
  • Load interrupter switches.
  • Fuses.
  • Power transformer.
  • Current transformer and potential transformer.
  • Control cable.
slide113

Types of switch gear equipment.

  • Circuit breaker.
  • Bus-bar.
  • Fuses.
  • Protective relay.
slide114

Various type of bus-bar arrangement.

  • Single bus bar system used in D.C. and A.C. power station.
  • Single bus bar system with sectionalisation.
  • Ring bus bar system.
  • Duplicate bus bar system.
slide115

Types of faults in distribution power system.

  • Over current.
  • Under voltage.
  • Unbalance voltage.
  • Reversed power.
  • Surges.
slide117

Function of protective relay.

  • The relay are used to cut off the power supply, promptly to any element of power system which undergoes short –circuit it starts operating abnormally.
slide118

Main feature of a good protective Relays.

  • Selectivity.
  • Sensitivity.
  • Reliability.
  • Quickness.
  • Non- interference with future extension.
slide119

Types of relays.

  • Solenoid relay.
  • Attracted armature type relay.
  • Electrodynamics type.
  • Moving type relay.
  • Induction type relay.
  • Thermal relay.
  • Over current relay.
  • Over voltage relay.
slide125

Method of arc extinction in circuit breaker.

  • High resistance interruption.

(1) Arc lengthening.

(2) Arc cooling.

(3) Arc splitting.

(4) Arc constraining.

  • Low resistance interruption.

(1) Cooling.

(2) Gap lengthening.

(3) Blast effect.

slide126

Types of circuit breaker.

  • Low voltage air circuit breaker.
  • Oil circuit breaker.
  • Air blast circuit breaker.
  • SF6 circuit breaker.
  • Vacuum circuit breaker.
slide129

Types of material used in Fuse element.

  • Rewireable fuse.
  • Cartridge type fuse.
  • Drop out fuse.
  • High capacity H.R.C. fuse.
  • High voltage H.R.C. fuse.
slide133

Types of Transformer.

  • Power transformer.
  • Auto transformer.
  • Transformer for Feeding installation with static converters.
  • Testing transformer.
  • Power transformer for special application.
slide137

Various type losses in Transformer

  • It’s a mineral oil obtained by refine crude petroleum. It serves the following purpose.
  • Provide additional insulation.
  • Carries away the heat generated in the core & coils .
  • Protects the paper from dirt & moisture.