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CLI Implementation. VSWG F2F IRT Macau, March 2007. CLI Implementation. CLI was #1 Priority for 2006 Ref Doc # 139 written & approved Recommendations: Initial focus on roamer-terminated calls Use ANSI-41 instead of ISUP Modify digit string to add IAC+CC. ANSI-41 for CLI.

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cli implementation

CLI Implementation

VSWG F2F IRT Macau, March 2007

cli implementation2
CLI Implementation
  • CLI was #1 Priority for 2006
  • Ref Doc #139 written & approved
  • Recommendations:
    • Initial focus on roamer-terminated calls
    • Use ANSI-41 instead of ISUP
    • Modify digit string to add IAC+CC
ansi 41 for cli
ANSI-41 for CLI
  • Operators requested (Dec ’06) to provide MSC configuration info for ANSI-41-derived CNIP
    • Config information (requested from the switch vendor) can be shared with other operators using the same vendor
    • No config information received to date
    • Suggestion that CDG make the request instead of operators
  • Some operators already use ANSI-41
    • Tracking via CLI survey responses
number modification
Number Modification
  • Aim is to present digits in easily-returnable format
    • Typically IAC+CC+NSN
    • Can avoid clashes with serving dial plan
  • Doc 139 suggests RSPs can perform necessary modifications
    • Applies only to ANSI-41 delivery
    • RSPs willing and able to help
  • MSC can potentially perform equivalent modifications for ISUP
    • Assuming intelligible number received
next steps
Next Steps
  • ANSI-41 vs ISUP
    • How to proceed
  • Number modification
    • RSPs are standing by
  • No major barriers to MT CLI implementation!
voicemail implementation

Voicemail Implementation

VSWG F2F IRT Macau, March 2007

voicemail implementation7
Voicemail Implementation
  • Voicemail was #2 priority for 2006
  • Ref Doc #135 written & approved
  • Recommendations:
    • Either SMS or ANSI-41 notification can work – don’t change
    • ANSI-41 best for new operators
    • Focus in order of use: notification; easy access; easy entry (PIN bypass/CLI)
    • Enable partners’ access codes: translations; FEATREQ; ORREQ
vm indicator
VM Indicator
  • Method used: Roughly even split among survey responses
  • Most serving operators support ANSI-41 method
  • SMS VMN dependent on MT-SMS roaming footprint
  • RSPs have offered conversion services
vm access
VM Access
  • Translations good for small serving operators
  • FEATREQ: RSPs willing to support (cf DRRR)
  • ORREQ: Cover in Prepaid work item - in general RSPs willing to support
  • SMS Callback modification
    • Briefly covered in Doc #135
    • Only for SMS-based notification
    • Modify Call-Back Number subparameter to IAC+CC+NSN
    • RSPs willing to provide
sms session

SMS Session

VSWG F2F IRT Macau, March 2007

sms billing 1
SMS Billing 1


  • Home operator retail billing is tricky
  • Operators may wish to
    • differentiate by serving market
    • Use MC billing record
    • Use an RSP for network interconnection
  • End result is not enough info in billing record
  • “Signaling for Roaming SMS Billing” doc available
    • Recommended “Transport Layer Solution” to minimize MC impacts
    • More work in network
    • More work in RSP

in billing record

Billing” doc available

sms billing 2
SMS Billing 2
  • SMS Billing survey – asked what fields possible in MC billing record
  • Responses
    • 5 of 7 support SMS_OA
  • MAP-layer modification may be easier!
    • No network impact
    • Easier for RSPs
    • Equivalent changes required in home operator billing system
  • Currently included as an appendix in “Signaling for Billing” document
    • If your MC can include a suitable field, may be a quicker option
sms overlength message
SMS Overlength Message
  • San Francisco meeting set time line for RSP support of Cause Code value 106
    • Date was 21 March
    • Status?
  • What does this support mean?
    • Doesn’t yet help Segmented messages (target November)
    • Report failure of a long message delivery attempt back to MC
    • Allows MC to take action (e.g. truncate/inform originator)
    • When RSPs support SAR, can stop “jamming”
  • Operator actions
    • Confirm MC action on receipt of this code
    • (As Serve) inform RSP of your limit
plus code dialing

Plus Code Dialing

VSWG F2F IRT Macau, March 2007

pcd requirements
PCD Requirements
  • Detailed requirements document available
    • Currently v0.3
    • Available on wiki and CDG website
    • Provides minimum and expanded requirements for network element and MS vendors
    • Conference call held last week
pcd business case
PCD Business Case
  • What information can help build the business case for PCD?
  • As home operator
    • Increased customer satisfaction at ease of use
    • Increasing expectation from ISR subscribers
    • Support of PCD at home increases chances subscribers will use it while roaming – more international calls to mark up?
  • As serving operator
    • More international calls originated by inbounders
    • “Unsuccessful call” CDRs to estimate the scope?
pcd next steps
PCD – Next Steps
  • Requirements Document Approval
    • Timeline?
  • When approved, carriers provide document to vendors
  • MS requirements to go to GHRC
mobile equipment id

Mobile Equipment ID

VSWG F2F IRT Macau, March 2007

  • ESN exhaust fast approaching
  • Some operators have MEID devices deployed today
  • Billing Question
  • Failure Scenario
  • “Doing Nothing is not an option” – TIA MEID FAQ
meid billing
MEID & Billing
  • Issue raised by KDDI: When both MEID & UIMID are available, which one is in CIBER?
    • Issue raised several meeting cycles ago
    • Not much response from operators? – hard to know in advance
    • CIBER manual update coming April 1 – says use UIMID
    • Can any operators volunteer handsets for testing?
failure scenario
Failure Scenario
  • Real-world issue observed
    • Roaming MEID device in legacy network
    • No service for device!
  • Problem analysis
    • Illegal value from BSC in IOS message
    • Due to SCM bit change for MEID
    • MSC rejected message
  • Action
    • CDG Bulletin sent to vendors and operators early March
    • Operators should confirm whether their network affected
  • EUIMID is replacement for ESN-like UIMID
  • Two possible types
    • Short Form – from MEID numbering space
    • Long Form – use card’s existing ICCID
  • New PLCM types defined in C.S0072 to avoid collisions
    • Device functionality, not UIM
    • Current conclusion: don’t use EUIMID-only cards in ESN-only devices
prepaid roaming

Prepaid Roaming

VSWG F2F IRT Macau, March 2007

prepaid roaming introduction
Prepaid Roaming - Introduction
  • Most (all?) operators have a prepaid offering
    • Some have very high percentage of prepaid subscribers
    • >50% of subscribers in to 30 operators (all technologies)
  • No (?) known CDMA prepaid international roaming to date
    • Potential market opportunity
    • Where travel costs are cheap (e.g. land border) – more demand for prepaid roaming?
prepaid roaming solution types
Prepaid Roaming – Solution Types
  • Handset/UIM-based
  • Service Node
  • Out-of-band

(See presentation last IRT for more background on these)

  • What are current deployments?
  • Generic WIN/ANSI-41 trigger services
    • Rolled into this work item due to similarity
    • Can be an enabler for prepaid solution(s)
    • Let’s talk about them first!
generic trigger services
Generic Trigger Services
  • ANSI-41-D defines Origination Triggers
    • All Calls, k-digit, * # etc
    • Trigger messages sent to HLR
  • WIN Phase 1 (IS-771)
    • Extends the trigger types
    • Defines SCP – a new element can control the call
    • ANSI-41/WIN triggers in common use by operators today
    • Typical application is “short code dialing” e.g. dial extension 1234, network translates to 858-555-1234 & routes the call
    • CallFlow
generic trigger services roaming
Generic Trigger Services - Roaming
  • Two types of service
  • Home network-based
    • Services as used by subscribers at home, e.g. short-code
    • Service Logic can be per-subscriber or subscriber group
    • Triggers included in subscriber profile by HLR
    • Trigger message goes back to HLR – home network performs translation
  • RSP-based
    • Carrier-wide service logic
    • “Fix-up” services for use while roaming – e.g. Customer Care, VM access
    • RSP inserts trigger(s) into profile at registration time – recommend k-digits for load
    • Trigger message processed at RSP
    • Home network has no involvement
  • CallFlow
generic trigger services potential issues
Generic Trigger Services – Potential Issues
  • Trigger support at serving network
    • If triggered services are used for own subscribers, should be OK
    • Many services could be supported by ANSI-41 triggers
    • RSP conversion WIN  ANSI-41?
  • Number format after translation
    • 1234  858-555-1234 not helpful if roaming internationally!
    • Home network fix – need true/Operator Level MSCID
    • RSP fix – could modify orreq digits
  • Billing
    • Just for a change!
    • Serving operator support charge based on translated digits (not dialed)
    • Bill presentation at Home – CIBER Printed Call field
generic trigger services summary
Generic Trigger Services – Summary
  • Lots of cool tricks can be done with this
  • Basic capabilities may already be in place
  • Issues likely to be simpler than full-blown prepaid
  • Go try it!
handset uim based solutions
Handset/UIM-based Solutions
  • Propose that we don’t address further in VSWG
    • Not common in CDMA
    • Roaming issues don’t require collaboration of serving network (?)
  • Potential exception – SIM-based prepaid for ISR
    • Will this be a driver for CDMA side?
service node solutions
Service Node Solutions
  • Calls trunked through the “prepaid box”
  • More common for smaller operators?
  • Initial thought – too expensive for international roaming
    • But maybe for neighboring countries?
    • Similar condition as would suit prepaid roamers
    • High percentage of roaming calls back to home country anyway
    • Worth a look?
  • Not a standard solution, but can build on standard capabilities at serving network
    • Need to get call home, regardless of dialed digits
    • Hotline (OI=8) and secondary dial tone
    • All-calls trigger, TLDN and re-associate
  • CallFlow
  • CallFlow
service node solutions terminating charges
Service Node Solutions – Terminating Charges
  • Some operators charge for receiving calls, others don’t (CPP – Calling Party Pays)
  • But, everyone charges for international call delivery leg
    • How to do for prepaid?
  • Non-CPP operator
    • Already has way to charge subscriber, i.e. route call through box
    • If controlled from Originating MSC, can re-use for roaming
    • If rely on Serving MSC, tricky – try approach below
  • CPP Operator
    • Never needed to route mobile-terminated calls through box until now
    • Possible approach – route all international mobile call delivery legs through box, ignore postpaid subscribers
    • Assumes roaming calls << home network prepaid calls
out of band solutions
Out of Band Solutions
  • No trunking of calls
    • Instead, send signaling messages only to “prepaid box” to advise events – call answer, call disconnect etc
  • Two main types
    • ISUP-based
    • WIN-based
out of band solutions isup based
Out of Band Solutions – ISUP-based
  • Characteristics
    • Send calls on “looparound trunk”
    • Pick off ISUP signaling and send to prepaid box
    • Typically relies on custom provisioning to identify subscribers, but could use triggers
    • Close cooperation required between operators – custom setup on partner MSCs
    • Depends on CLI to identify caller
    • Home application must understand roaming dial plan
      • Or alternatively use home dial plan
  • Suggest lowest priority for this method
    • Too hard
out of band solutions win based
Out of Band Solutions – WIN-based
  • Uses IS-826 standard
    • Extends WIN standard to include mid/end-call event triggers (answer, disconnect) and remote mid-call control (play credit warning, cut off call)
    • Triggers included in subscriber profile
    • IS-826 support required at serving MSC
    • Callflows are a bit complex
  • Suggest this as first priority among prepaid approaches
    • In use by several operators today
    • Standards-based
    • Efficient (no extra trunking)
    • RSPs may be able to add value
win based solution discussion points 1
WIN-based Solution – Discussion Points 1
  • IS-826 Support in Serving Network
    • If IS-826 not already in use, potentially involves optional feature cost
    • Will operators buy these features just to support roamers?
  • Terminating Call Charging
    • As per Service Node – not all operators charge (at home) to receive a call
    • IS-826 has capabilities for terminating call charging
    • Unlikely to be implemented for CPP operators
    • Depend on Originating MSC – can’t “just” get RSP to insert terminating triggers into the subscriber profile
    • May impact prepaid subscribers at home too
win based solution discussion points 2
WIN-based Solution – Discussion Points 2
  • Dialplan knowledge at SCP
    • SCP has to understand dialplan of serving networks
      • Or use home network dialplan?
      • RSP Normalization?
    • SCP has to understand roaming charges for each network
    • SCP needs to know serving network (true/Operator-level MSCID)
  • Recharge while roaming
    • Assume “scratchy cards” aren’t available in serving country
    • If stocked up with cards, how to access recharge IVR?
      • Allow as a free call, eat international charge from serve? Retroactively debit?
    • SMS/Internet possible methods, difficult if customer has no credit card
    • Call cut-off redirect to recharge IVR needs internationally-formatted destination
win based solution discussion points 3
WIN-based Solution – Discussion Points 3
  • Tones and Announcements
    • IS-826 defines various tones/announcements for prepaid
    • E.g. Warning Tone, Announcement: “You have five minutes left”
    • Tones unlikely to be the same in other networks, announcements definitely not
      • Standard defines PreferredLanguageID, unlikely to help much
    • Alternative is to deliver announcements from Intelligent Peripheral (IP) in home network (ConnectResource, SeizeResource operations)
      • How is international leg charged (no answer signal – no worries?)
  • Fraud Potential
    • Minor service quirks are a Big Deal in prepaid
    • Can result in monetary loss – fun/easy to exploit once known
    • Careful testing a must
win based solution discussion points 4
WIN-based Solution – Discussion Points 4
  • SMS
    • IS-826-A includes SMS scenarios
      • MC informs SCP of SMS events
    • Alternative approach - “Prepaid Box” in front of MC
      • Intercepts all SMS and passes on if postpaid or balance allows
      • In either case processing is done in home network – easier for roaming
    • Similar billing challenge to postpaid SMS Roaming – home network should know identity of serving network to charge correctly
    • Terminating SMS charging
      • Similar concept to voice – operator may not charge for MT-SMS at home, but serving operator does charge
      • How to get SMS event to intersect with prepaid system?
  • Signaling link occupancy
    • 4 new message pairs for originating calls, 2 for terminating
prepaid roaming next steps
Prepaid Roaming – Next Steps
  • Agree on priorities
  • Survey!
  • Solicit Operator input
    • Skylink already volunteered to sponsor
backup slides

Backup Slides

VSWG F2F IRT Macau, March 2007