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Chapter 5 Chemical Reactions and Quantities. Types of Reactions Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Type of Reactions. Chemical reactions are classified into four general types Combination Decomposition Single Replacement Double Replacement. Combination (Synthesis).

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chapter 5 chemical reactions and quantities
Chapter 5Chemical Reactions and Quantities

Types of Reactions

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

LecturePLUS Timberlake 99

type of reactions
Type of Reactions

Chemical reactions are classified into four general types

  • Combination
  • Decomposition
  • Single Replacement
  • Double Replacement

LecturePLUS Timberlake 99

combination synthesis
Combination (Synthesis)

Two or more elements or simple compounds combine to form (synthesize) one product

A + B AB

2Mg + O2 2MgO

2Na + Cl2 2NaCl

SO3 + H2O H2SO4

LecturePLUS Timberlake 99

decomposition
Decomposition

One substance is broken down (split) into two or more simpler substances.

AB A + B

2HgO 2Hg + O2

2KClO3 2KCl + 3 O2

LecturePLUS Timberlake 99

learning check r1
Learning Check R1

Classify the following reactions as

1) combination or 2) decomposition:

___A. H2 + Br2 2HBr

___B. Al2(CO3)3 Al2O3 + 3CO2

___C. 4 Al + 3C Al4C3

LecturePLUS Timberlake 99

solution r1
Solution R1

Classify the following reactions as

1) combination or 2) decomposition:

_1_A. H2 + Br2 2HBr

_2_B. Al2(CO3)3 Al2O3 + 3CO2

_1_C. 4 Al + 3C Al4C3

LecturePLUS Timberlake 99

single replacement
Single Replacement

One element takes the place of an element in a reacting compound.

A + BC AB + C

Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2

Fe + CuSO4FeSO4 + Cu

LecturePLUS Timberlake 99

double replacement
Double Replacement

Two elements in reactants take the place of each other

AB + CD AD + CB

AgNO3 + NaCl AgCl+ NaNO3

ZnS + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2S

LecturePLUS Timberlake 99

learning check r2
Learning Check R2

Classify the following reactions as

1) single replacement

2) double replacement

__A. 2Al + 3H2SO4 Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2

__B. Na2SO4 + 2AgNO3 Ag2SO4 + 2NaNO3

__C. 3C + Fe2O3 2Fe + 3CO

LecturePLUS Timberlake 99

solution r2
Solution R2

Classify the following reactions as

1) single replacement

2) double replacement

1_A. 2Al + 3H2SO4 Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2

2_B. Na2SO4 + 2AgNO3 Ag2SO4 + 2NaNO3

1_C. 3C + Fe2O3 2Fe + 3CO

LecturePLUS Timberlake 99

combustion
Combustion

A reaction in which a compound (often carbon) reacts with oxygen

C + O2 CO2

CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O

C3H8 + 5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O

LecturePLUS Timberlake 99

learning check r3
Learning Check R3

Balance the combustion equation

___C5H12 + ___O2 ___CO2+ ___H2O

LecturePLUS Timberlake 99

solution r3
Solution R3

Balance the combustion equation

1 C5H12 + 8 O2 5 CO2+ 6 H2O

LecturePLUS Timberlake 99

oxidation and reduction
Oxidation and Reduction
  • Reactions that involve a loss or gain of electrons
  • Occurs in many of the 4 types of reactions and combustion
  • Important in food metabolism, batteries, rusting of metals

LecturePLUS Timberlake 99

requirements for oxidization reduction
Requirements for Oxidization-Reduction
  • Electrons are transferred
  • Two processes occur

Oxidation = Loss of electrons (LEO)

Zn Zn2+ + 2e-

Reduction = Gain of electrons (GER)

Cu2+ + 2e- Cu

LecturePLUS Timberlake 99

balanced red ox equations
Balanced Red-Ox Equations

Combine the oxidation and reduction reactions to make

Loss of electrons = Gain of electrons

Zn + Cu2+ + 2e- Zn2+ + 2e- + Cu

Zn + Cu2+ Zn2+ + Cu

LecturePLUS Timberlake 99

gain loss of hydrogen
Gain/Loss of Hydrogen

In organic and biological reactions

oxidation = Loss of H

reduction = Gain of H

LecturePLUS Timberlake 99

learning check r318
Learning Check R3

Identify the following as an 1) oxidation or a reduction process:

__A. Sn Sn4+ + 4e-

__B. Fe3+ + 1e- Fe2+

__C. Cl2 + 2e- 2Cl-

LecturePLUS Timberlake 99

solution r319
Solution R3

Identify the following as an 1) oxidation or a reduction process:

1_ A. Sn Sn4+ + 4e-

2_ B. Fe3+ + 1e- Fe2+

2_ C. Cl2 + 2e- 2Cl-

LecturePLUS Timberlake 99

learning check r4
Learning Check R4

In light-sensitive sunglasses, UV light initiates an oxidation-reduction reaction

Ag+ + Cl- Ag + Cl

A. Which reactant is oxidized

1) Ag+ 2) Cl- 3) Ag

B. Which reactant is reduced?

1) Ag+ 2) Cl- 3) Cl

LecturePLUS Timberlake 99

solution r4
Solution R4

In light-sensitive sunglasses, UV light initiates an oxidation-reduction reaction

Ag+ + Cl- Ag + Cl

A. Which reactant is oxidized

2) Cl- Cl- Cl + e-

B. Which reactant is reduced?

1) Ag+ Ag+ + e- Ag

LecturePLUS Timberlake 99