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Automotive Internal Combustion Engine Classifications Engine Design Cylinder Arrangement Camshaft Location and Number Ignition Systems Combustion Chamber Designs Engine Design Reciprocating (piston) 4 stroke cycle 2 stroke cycle (not currently used in automotive applications)

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automotive internal combustion engine classifications
Automotive Internal Combustion Engine Classifications
  • Engine Design
  • Cylinder Arrangement
  • Camshaft Location and Number
  • Ignition Systems
  • Combustion Chamber Designs
engine design
Engine Design
  • Reciprocating (piston)
    • 4 stroke cycle
    • 2 stroke cycle (not currently used in automotive applications)
    • Miller cycle: differs from traditional 4 stroke by keeping intake valve open much longer
  • Rotary
cylinder arrangement
Cylinder Arrangement
  • Inline
    • 3/4/5/6 cylinder configurations
  • V-type
    • 6/8/10 cylinder configurations
  • Horizontally Opposed
    • 4/6 cylinder configurations
cylinder arrangement4
Cylinder Arrangement
  • Firing Order: sequence in which cylinders fire
    • Cylinders are numbered from front to rear
    • Determined by number of cylinders and arrangement of crankshaft throws
camshaft location and number
Camshaft Location and Number
  • Overhead Cam (OHC): cam located in cylinder head
    • SOHC: one cam for both intake and exhaust valves
    • DOHC: separate intake and exhaust cams
  • Pushrod: cam located in engine block
ignition systems
Ignition Systems
  • Method for igniting air/fuel mixture
    • Spark Ignition (SI)
      • Gasoline
      • LNG
      • CNG
      • Alternative fuels
    • Compression Ignition (CI)
      • Diesel
combustion chamber designs
Combustion Chamber Designs
  • Wedge:
    • Intake and exhaust valves set in a plane
    • Spark plug located above or below valve plane
    • Cheaper manufacturing cost
  • Hemispherical (hemi):
    • Valves set in two planes
    • Spark plug located between valves
    • More efficient
    • Higher output
    • Higher manufacturing cost
combustion chamber designs8
Combustion Chamber Designs
  • Non-interference (freewheeling):
    • Clearance between open valves and piston at TDC
  • Interference:
    • No clearance between open valves and piston at TDC
    • Major engine damage if cam or crank is turned independently