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Teacher Educators as Agents of Change for Education for Sustainable Development – The Case of Lesotho College of Education By ‘Mantoetse Jobo Lesotho College of Education Approach taken in the Study Background Contextual Framework

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Teacher Educators as Agents of Change for Education for Sustainable Development – The Case of Lesotho College of Education

By ‘Mantoetse Jobo

Lesotho College of Education

approach taken in the study
Approach taken in the Study
  • Background
  • Contextual Framework
  • Government Initiatives to address Environmental issues in Education
  • Teaching Education
  • Literature Review
  • Theoretical Framework Underpinning Study
  • Purpose of the study
  • Research Aim
  • Methodological Framework
  • Ethical Considerations
  • Validity
  • Data Analysis
  • Presentation of Results
  • Lesotho is a country endowed with scenic landscape and natural resources.
  • Challenges
    • high population growth before the HIV/ AIDS scourge that led to depletion of natural resources and many social conflicts.
    • Lack of education on sustainability issues and principles
contextual framework
Contextual framework
  • An overview of the Basotho education system;
    • Developments in Lesotho Schools – re Environmental Education
  • National Strategy and Action Plan –
    • Higher Education highlighted as a major instrument in the unfolding United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development; (Ministry of Education and Training 2008)
government initiatives to address environmental issues in education in lesotho
Government Initiatives to address Environmental issues in Education in Lesotho
  • LEESP Project Collaboratively sponsored by Danida and Lesotho Government running from 2001- 2003;
  • Emphasis made in the Education Strategic Plan for 2005-2015 to redress low quality and increase efficiency in the secondary education system (MOET 2005)
teacher education
Teacher Education
    • Lesotho College of Education – Lack of inter/intra-disciplinary Collaboration leading to poor learning connections by students (NTTC, 1988; Burke and Sugrue, 1994; Lefoka and Sebatane, 2003)
    • Efforts to enhance departmental collaboration made through formulation of committees since 1988. ‘Teaching by subjects’ was presented as one of the greatest weakness by the ‘Integration Committee’ (NTTC, 1988).
  • In the autonomy era - Lecturers at the College seldom meet with their counterparts in other departments (Lefoka and Sebatane, 2003)
teacher education7
Teacher Education
  • Lack of collaboration between subject areas on the one hand and educational foundations on the other … adversely affect the teaching of the curriculum’. (Lefoka and Sebatane, 2003);
  • Disciplinary boundaries hinder students from using knowledge gained outside of the disciplines they are studying for, thus using knowledge in a narrow sense. This poses a huge threat to the quality of teacher education.
challenges at lce
Challenges at LCE
  • LCE has difficulties in the whole area of physical resource provision’ (Burke and Sugrue 1994:22).
  • The nature of the facilities and the institutional infra-structure also has important repercussions for the human resources of the College (Lefoka and Sebatane, 2003: 67)
  • Student teachers rely mostly on ‘handouts from the lecturers in the form of photocopied texts or notes, as well as on the chalkboard’.
literature review
Literature Review

What is Sustainable Development?

“Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (Brundtland Commission, 1987)

education for sustainable development
Education for Sustainable Development

Sustainable Development is described as ‘a dynamic process that enables all people to realize their potential and improve their quality of life in ways which simultaneously protect and enhance the earth’s life support systems’ (Webster, 2004: 52).

education for sustainable development11
Education for Sustainable Development
  • Education for Sustainable Development is a process of achieving human

development in an inclusive, equitable and secure manner(

4 major thrusts of education for sustainable development
4- Major thrusts of Education for sustainable development
  • First described in Chapter 36 of Agenda 21
  • 4 major thrusts to begin work of UNDESD:
  • Improvement of basic education
  • Reorienting existing education to address sustainable development
  • Development of public understanding and awareness
  • Provision of training
education for sustainable development13
Education for Sustainable Development
  • Pigozzi (2007) contends that we do not need a subject called ‘sustainable development’ in the curriculum, but to reflect the interaction of numerous actions in many different spheres, so the ideas, issues, topics and problems related to Sustainable Development should be integrated into all aspects of leaning, hence, calling for a whole institutions approach to education for Sustainable Development.
teacher education14
Teacher Education
  • In order for teacher education programs to be effective, knowledge of environmental problems and sustainable development, theories of teaching and learning, and practical knowledge of teaching skills or experience should be integrated.
  • Higher education institutions should enable teacher trainees to play a role in redressing real socio-ecological and socio-economic concerns and democratic values of society’ (Ketlhoilwe, 2008: 19).
teacher education15
Teacher Education
  • Also, that, student engagement and understanding through multidisciplinary, experiential, and intergenerational learning that is not only relevant but potentially contributes to the well-being of community life’ is essential (Gruenewald 2003: 7).
  • Multidisciplinary approaches to teaching and learning could, therefore, be employed to interrogate and address identified issues such as loss of soil fertility and water holding capacity of agricultural lands, flooding and general unsustainable use of cropping lands
life long learning
Life-long Learning
  • The LEESP focused on four levels of knowledge as pedagogical pillars that promote life-long learning namely:
  • Data knowledge – the lowest form of knowledge, it asks ‘who, when, where’;
  • Explanation knowledge – this explains why things happen the way they do, it asks ‘why, how’;
  • Judgment knowledge – this is whereby estimation, evaluation, assessment or judgment of matters is done, it asks ‘is it good or bad…, is it acceptable…, do we want to…?’
  • Action knowledge – the highest form of knowledge, where one is able to act using one’s experience in different matters, it asks ‘what can I do…, what could be done…
action competency
Action Competency
  • The extent to which individuals within and as a group exhibit traits or sets of skills and abilities for ‘action competence (AC) which at some time or another will result in concrete actions (A) which in turn brings about a strife for change’ (CH) (Jensen and Schnack, 1994: 74).
  • Following ‘action knowledge’, an individual willingly takes an action on an issue that could be:
theoretical framework
Theoretical Framework
  • Critical Pedagogy:
  • Critical pedagogy explicitly makes the limits and simulations of classroom problematic’ (Gruenewald, 2003: 9). It is these problematic situations that provoke critical thinking and creativity in learners as they begin to seek solutions to problems at hand. Gruenewald argues that teachers and students should indeed explore and ‘interrogate the places outside of school – as part of the school curriculum – that are the local context of shared cultural politics’ (Gruenewald, 2003: 9).
purpose of study
Purpose of Study

The purpose of this study is to:

  • Investigate the historical culture of structure and agency at the Lesotho College of Education in relation to environmental education and education for sustainable development as educational interventions.
  • To find out how teacher trainers’ agency for change could be enhanced through a participatory action research approach to develop an integrated critical curriculum model for mainstreaming education for sustainable development;
research questions
Research Questions
  • What is the historical culture of structure and agency at Lesotho College of Education in relation to Education for Sustainable Development as a change initiative?
  • What mechanisms enable/constrain teacher trainers to interact within and across disciplines in order to interact and bring about change for sustainable development
  • How has Education for Sustainable Development as a change initiative come into play at Lesotho College of Education?
research questions21
Research Questions
  • What is the role of teacher trainers at Lesotho College of Education in institutionalizing Education for Sustainable Development?
  • What institutional structures enable /hinder the adoption of Environmental Education/ Education for Sustainable Development at Lesotho College of Education?
  • How do the teacher trainers perceive themselves as change agents for sustainable development?
research questions22
Research Questions
  • To what extent do teacher trainers at Lesotho College of Education portray ‘action competence skills in and out of their classrooms in order to become agents of change?
  • What behavior is held by teacher trainers at Lesotho College of Education that indicate positive attitude leading towards action competence?
research questions23
Research Questions
  • How do the teacher trainers perceive and value environment and Education for Sustainable Development?
  • What enabling environment is created for students to acquire knowledge and skill in identifying, interrogating and addressing environmental issues?
  • What pedagogical approach is employed by teacher trainers when teaching for sustainable development?
  • What process is followed by teacher trainers in order to identify, interrogate and address environmental issues pertinent to their courses?
  • What criteria are used by teacher trainers to identify themes that emanate from these environmental issues?
  • Margaret Acher’s theory of critical realism will be used.
  • The historical culture of structure and agency will be studied through to find out what empowering or inhibiting structures exist; the nature of agency and teacher trainers’ attitudes towards education for sustainable development.
  • An institutional audit that indicates the engagement of the College with environmental education/education for sustainable development will be carried out.
  • Focus group discussions will be used with participating teacher trainers.
  • Multidisciplinary participatory action research will be used to develop an integrated curriculum model with teacher trainers at LCE.
  • Case-study for examining instances of ‘action’ in the classroom of participating teacher trainers will be used.
  • Classroom observations by participating teachers followed by reflexivity by individual and teams of observing teachers
involvement of teacher trainers in the study
Involvement of Teacher Trainers in the Study
  • A meeting with the three Faculty Deans and Heads of Departments to explain the purpose of this study and to solicit support will be held.
  • Two participants from each of the three Faculties will be invited to join the study.
  • The study will be validated through the following means:
    • multi-method approach to data collection
    • Catalytic validity
ethical considerations
Ethical Considerations
  • I will observe protocol by involving all relevant parties from the beginning of the study
  • I will always obtain authorization for using quotations and I will take responsibility to maintain confidentiality of the study.
  • I will retain the right to report my work at various stages still ensuring that no account ill represents any of the participants (Cohen and Manion, 1994).
data analysis
Data Analysis
  • Acher’s theory of critical realism will be used for analysis.
  • Deconstruction of data will be done to understand events and to emancipate the agents in order to enable them to make meanings of ideas and their values, also reconstruction will be carried out in order promote agency
  • Reporting at various stages of the study will be done, first to participants then to their departments also as a validation procedure.