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Advanced best match Mark Sanderson Porto, 2000 Aims To build on what you have done so far, reviewing more sophisticated ways of ranking documents in relation to a query. Objectives At the end of this lecture you will be able to describe a range of statistically based approaches to IR namely

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advanced best match

Advanced best match

Mark Sanderson

Porto, 2000

slide2
Aims
  • To build on what you have done so far, reviewing more sophisticated ways of ranking documents in relation to a query.
objectives
Objectives
  • At the end of this lecture you will be able to
    • describe a range of statistically based approaches to IR namely
      • Best match ranking
      • Passage retrieval
      • Web page popularity techniques
      • Web link counting
slide4
Why?
  • Extend your knowledge in how IR systems work
up till now
Up till now…
  • Inverse document frequency
    • More frequent - bad
    • Less frequent - good
  • More often a term is used (term frequency)
    • More likely document is about that term
    • Depends on document length?
basically covers it
Basically covers it
  • More sophisticated formulas about
    • Basically tf*idf
    • Some variation, e.g.
      • tf normalisation
      • Divide by max tf?
      • Look at test collections
        • Singhal, A., Buckley, C., Mitra, M. (1996): Pivoted Document Length Normalization, in Proceedings of the 19th annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval : 21-29
anything else
Anything else?
  • How to make ranking better?
    • Term location?
      • Why? big documents
    • Web link analysis
      • Why?
    • Popularity
      • Why?
warning
Warning
  • Customise system to a collection…
    • …and it become less generally applicable.
term location
Term location
  • Prefer documents where terms are closer together?
    • Passage retrieval
        • Hearst, M.A., Plaunt, C. (1993): Subtopic structuring for full-length document access, in Proceedings of the 16th annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval: 59-68
        • Callan, J. (1994): Passage­Level Evidence in Document Retrieval, in Proceedings of the 17th annual international ACM-SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval: 302-310
hearst and plaunt
Research interests/publications/lecturing/supervising

My publications list probably does a reasonable job of ostensively defining my interests and past activities. For those with a preference for more explicit definitions, see below.

I'm now working at the CIIR with an interest in automatically constructed categorisations and means of explaining these constructions to users. I also plan to work some more on a couple aspects of my thesis that look promising.

Supervised by Keith van Rijsbergen in the Glasgow IR group, I finished my Ph.D. in 1997 looking at the issues surrounding the use of Word Sense Disambiguation applied to IR: a number of publications have resulted from this work. While doing my Ph.D., I was fortunate enough to apply for and get a small grant which enabled Ross Purves and I to investigate the use of IR ranked retrieval in the field of avalanche forecasting (snow avalanches that is), this resulted in a paper in JDoc. At Glasgow, I also worked on a number of TREC submissions and also co-wrote the guidelines for creating the very short queries introduced in TREC-6. Finally, I was involved in lecturing work on the AIS Advanced MSc course writing and presenting two short courses on Implementation and NLP applied to IR. I also supervised/co-supervised four MSc students. The work of three of these bright young things have been published in a number of good conferences.

My first introduction to IR was the building (with Iain Campbell) of an interface to a probabilistic IR system searching over two years of the Financial Times newspaper. The system, called NRT (News Retrieval Tool), was described in a paper by Donna Harman, "User Friendly Systems Instead of User-Friendly Front Ends". Donna's paper appears in JASIS and the "Readings in IR" book by Sparck-Jones and Willett.

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

Hearst and Plaunt
  • Split document into passages
  • Rank a document based on scores of each of it’s passages
  • What is a passage?
    • Paragraph?
    • TextTiling?
    • (non-overlapping) Fixed window?
texttiling
TextTiling?
  • Compute sentence block similarity
results
Results?
  • TextTiling and paragraphs work equally well
  • Fixed windows work less well.
callan
Research interests/publications/lecturing/supervising

My publications list probably does a reasonable job of ostensively defining my interests and past activities. For those with a preference for more explicit definitions, see below.

I'm now working at the CIIR with an interest in automatically constructed categorisations and means of explaining these constructions to users. I also plan to work some more on a couple aspects of my thesis that look promising.

Supervised by Keith van Rijsbergen in the Glasgow IR group, I finished my Ph.D. in 1997 looking at the issues surrounding the use of Word Sense Disambiguation applied to IR: a number of publications have resulted from this work. While doing my Ph.D., I was fortunate enough to apply for and get a small grant which enabled Ross Purves and I to investigate the use of IR ranked retrieval in the field of avalanche forecasting (snow avalanches that is), this resulted in a paper in JDoc. At Glasgow, I also worked on a number of TREC submissions and also co-wrote the guidelines for creating the very short queries introduced in TREC-6. Finally, I was involved in lecturing work on the AIS Advanced MSc course writing and presenting two short courses on Implementation and NLP applied to IR. I also supervised/co-supervised four MSc students. The work of three of these bright young things have been published in a number of good conferences.

My first introduction to IR was the building (with Iain Campbell) of an interface to a probabilistic IR system searching over two years of the Financial Times newspaper. The system, called NRT (News Retrieval Tool), was described in a paper by Donna Harman, "User Friendly Systems Instead of User-Friendly Front Ends". Donna's paper appears in JASIS and the "Readings in IR" book by Sparck-Jones and Willett.

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

Callan
  • Split document into passages
  • Rank a document based on score of its highest ranking passage
  • What is a passage?
    • Paragraph?
      • Bounded paragraph
    • (overlapping) Fixed window?
results14
Results?
  • Overlapping passage did the best.
how do they do that
How do they do that?
  • Best passage retrieval in the result list
      • Tombros, A. and Sanderson, M. Advantages of query-biased summaries in IR, in Proceedings of the 21st ACM SIGIR conference, Pages 2-10, 1998
web link analysis
Research interests/publications/lecturing/supervising

My publications list probably does a reasonable job of ostensively defining my interests and past activities. For those with a preference for more explicit definitions, see below.

I'm now working at the CIIR with an interest in automatically constructed categorisations and means of explaining these constructions to users. I also plan to work some more on a couple aspects of my thesis that look promising.

Supervised by Keith van Rijsbergen in the Glasgow IR group, I finished my Ph.D. in 1997 looking at the issues surrounding the use of Word Sense Disambiguation applied to IR: a number of publications have resulted from this work. While doing my Ph.D., I was fortunate enough to apply for and get a small grant which enabled Ross Purves and I to investigate the use of IR ranked retrieval in the field of avalanche forecasting (snow avalanches that is), this resulted in a paper in JDoc. At Glasgow, I also worked on a number of TREC submissions and also co-wrote the guidelines for creating the very short queries introduced in TREC-6. Finally, I was involved in lecturing work on the AIS Advanced MSc course writing and presenting two short courses on Implementation and NLP applied to IR. I also supervised/co-supervised four MSc students. The work of three of these bright young things have been published in a number of good conferences.

My first introduction to IR was the building (with Iain Campbell) of an interface to a probabilistic IR system

Research interests/publications/lecturing/supervising

My publications list probably does a reasonable job of ostensively defining my interests and past activities. For those with a preference for more explicit definitions, see below.

I'm now working at the CIIR with an interest in automatically constructed categorisations and means of explaining these constructions to users. I also plan to work some more on a couple aspects of my thesis that look promising.

Supervised by Keith van Rijsbergen in the Glasgow IR group, I finished my Ph.D. in 1997 looking at the issues surrounding the use of Word Sense Disambiguation applied to IR: a number of publications have resulted from this work. While doing my Ph.D., I was fortunate enough to apply for and get a small grant which enabled Ross Purves and I to investigate the use of IR ranked retrieval in the field of avalanche forecasting (snow avalanches that is), this resulted in a paper in JDoc. At Glasgow, I also worked on a number of TREC submissions and also co-wrote the guidelines for creating the very short queries introduced in TREC-6. Finally, I was involved in lecturing work on the AIS Advanced MSc course writing and presenting two short courses on Implementation and NLP applied to IR. I also supervised/co-supervised four MSc students. The work of three of these bright young things have been published in a number of good conferences.

My first introduction to IR was the building (with Iain Campbell) of an interface to a probabilistic IR system

Research interests/publications/lecturing/supervising

My publications list probably does a reasonable job of ostensively defining my interests and past activities. For those with a preference for more explicit definitions, see below.

I'm now working at the CIIR with an interest in automatically constructed categorisations and means of explaining these constructions to users. I also plan to work some more on a couple aspects of my thesis that look promising.

Supervised by Keith van Rijsbergen in the Glasgow IR group, I finished my Ph.D. in 1997 looking at the issues surrounding the use of Word Sense Disambiguation applied to IR: a number of publications have resulted from this work. While doing my Ph.D., I was fortunate enough to apply for and get a small grant which enabled Ross Purves and I to investigate the use of IR ranked retrieval in the field of avalanche forecasting (snow avalanches that is), this resulted in a paper in JDoc. At Glasgow, I also worked on a number of TREC submissions and also co-wrote the guidelines for creating the very short queries introduced in TREC-6. Finally, I was involved in lecturing work on the AIS Advanced MSc course writing and presenting two short courses on Implementation and NLP applied to IR. I also supervised/co-supervised four MSc students. The work of three of these bright young things have been published in a number of good conferences.

My first introduction to IR was the building (with Iain Campbell) of an interface to a probabilistic IR system

Research interests/publications/lecturing/supervising

My publications list probably does a reasonable job of ostensively defining my interests and past activities. For those with a preference for more explicit definitions, see below.

I'm now working at the CIIR with an interest in automatically constructed categorisations and means of explaining these constructions to users. I also plan to work some more on a couple aspects of my thesis that look promising.

Supervised by Keith van Rijsbergen in the Glasgow IR group, I finished my Ph.D. in 1997 looking at the issues surrounding the use of Word Sense Disambiguation applied to IR: a number of publications have resulted from this work. While doing my Ph.D., I was fortunate enough to apply for and get a small grant which enabled Ross Purves and I to investigate the use of IR ranked retrieval in the field of avalanche forecasting (snow avalanches that is), this resulted in a paper in JDoc. At Glasgow, I also worked on a number of TREC submissions and also co-wrote the guidelines for creating the very short queries introduced in TREC-6. Finally, I was involved in lecturing work on the AIS Advanced MSc course writing and presenting two short courses on Implementation and NLP applied to IR. I also supervised/co-supervised four MSc students. The work of three of these bright young things have been published in a number of good conferences.

My first introduction to IR was the building (with Iain Campbell) of an interface to a probabilistic IR system

Web link analysis
  • Expand representation of document with text
        • Image retrieval by hypertext linksV. Harmandas, M. Sanderson and M.D. DunlopIn the Proceedings of the 20th ACM SIGIR conference, Pages 296-303, 1997
some sites better than others
Research interests/publications/lecturing/supervising

My publications list probably does a reasonable job of ostensively defining my interests and past activities. For those with a preference for more explicit definitions, see below.

I'm now working at the CIIR with an interest in automatically constructed categorisations and means of explaining these constructions to users. I also plan to work some more on a couple aspects of my thesis that look promising.

Supervised by Keith van Rijsbergen in the Glasgow IR group, I finished my Ph.D. in 1997 looking at the issues surrounding the use of Word Sense Disambiguation applied to IR: a number of publications have resulted from this work. While doing my Ph.D., I was fortunate enough to apply for and get a small grant which enabled Ross Purves and I to investigate the use of IR ranked retrieval in the field of avalanche forecasting (snow avalanches that is), this resulted in a paper in JDoc. At Glasgow, I also worked on a number of TREC submissions and also co-wrote the guidelines for creating the very short queries introduced in TREC-6. Finally, I was involved in lecturing work on the AIS Advanced MSc course writing and presenting two short courses on Implementation and NLP applied to IR. I also supervised/co-supervised four MSc students. The work of three of these bright young things have been published in a number of good conferences.

My first introduction to IR was the building (with Iain Campbell) of an interface to a probabilistic IR system

Research interests/publications/lecturing/supervising

My publications list probably does a reasonable job of ostensively defining my interests and past activities. For those with a preference for more explicit definitions, see below.

I'm now working at the CIIR with an interest in automatically constructed categorisations and means of explaining these constructions to users. I also plan to work some more on a couple aspects of my thesis that look promising.

Supervised by Keith van Rijsbergen in the Glasgow IR group, I finished my Ph.D. in 1997 looking at the issues surrounding the use of Word Sense Disambiguation applied to IR: a number of publications have resulted from this work. While doing my Ph.D., I was fortunate enough to apply for and get a small grant which enabled Ross Purves and I to investigate the use of IR ranked retrieval in the field of avalanche forecasting (snow avalanches that is), this resulted in a paper in JDoc. At Glasgow, I also worked on a number of TREC submissions and also co-wrote the guidelines for creating the very short queries introduced in TREC-6. Finally, I was involved in lecturing work on the AIS Advanced MSc course writing and presenting two short courses on Implementation and NLP applied to IR. I also supervised/co-supervised four MSc students. The work of three of these bright young things have been published in a number of good conferences.

My first introduction to IR was the building (with Iain Campbell) of an interface to a probabilistic IR system

Research interests/publications/lecturing/supervising

My publications list probably does a reasonable job of ostensively defining my interests and past activities. For those with a preference for more explicit definitions, see below.

I'm now working at the CIIR with an interest in automatically constructed categorisations and means of explaining these constructions to users. I also plan to work some more on a couple aspects of my thesis that look promising.

Supervised by Keith van Rijsbergen in the Glasgow IR group, I finished my Ph.D. in 1997 looking at the issues surrounding the use of Word Sense Disambiguation applied to IR: a number of publications have resulted from this work. While doing my Ph.D., I was fortunate enough to apply for and get a small grant which enabled Ross Purves and I to investigate the use of IR ranked retrieval in the field of avalanche forecasting (snow avalanches that is), this resulted in a paper in JDoc. At Glasgow, I also worked on a number of TREC submissions and also co-wrote the guidelines for creating the very short queries introduced in TREC-6. Finally, I was involved in lecturing work on the AIS Advanced MSc course writing and presenting two short courses on Implementation and NLP applied to IR. I also supervised/co-supervised four MSc students. The work of three of these bright young things have been published in a number of good conferences.

My first introduction to IR was the building (with Iain Campbell) of an interface to a probabilistic IR system

Research interests/publications/lecturing/supervising

My publications list probably does a reasonable job of ostensively defining my interests and past activities. For those with a preference for more explicit definitions, see below.

I'm now working at the CIIR with an interest in automatically constructed categorisations and means of explaining these constructions to users. I also plan to work some more on a couple aspects of my thesis that look promising.

Supervised by Keith van Rijsbergen in the Glasgow IR group, I finished my Ph.D. in 1997 looking at the issues surrounding the use of Word Sense Disambiguation applied to IR: a number of publications have resulted from this work. While doing my Ph.D., I was fortunate enough to apply for and get a small grant which enabled Ross Purves and I to investigate the use of IR ranked retrieval in the field of avalanche forecasting (snow avalanches that is), this resulted in a paper in JDoc. At Glasgow, I also worked on a number of TREC submissions and also co-wrote the guidelines for creating the very short queries introduced in TREC-6. Finally, I was involved in lecturing work on the AIS Advanced MSc course writing and presenting two short courses on Implementation and NLP applied to IR. I also supervised/co-supervised four MSc students. The work of three of these bright young things have been published in a number of good conferences.

My first introduction to IR was the building (with Iain Campbell) of an interface to a probabilistic IR system

Research interests/publications/lecturing/supervising

My publications list probably does a reasonable job of ostensively defining my interests and past activities. For those with a preference for more explicit definitions, see below.

I'm now working at the CIIR with an interest in automatically constructed categorisations and means of explaining these constructions to users. I also plan to work some more on a couple aspects of my thesis that look promising.

Supervised by Keith van Rijsbergen in the Glasgow IR group, I finished my Ph.D. in 1997 looking at the issues surrounding the use of Word Sense Disambiguation applied to IR: a number of publications have resulted from this work. While doing my Ph.D., I was fortunate enough to apply for and get a small grant which enabled Ross Purves and I to investigate the use of IR ranked retrieval in the field of avalanche forecasting (snow avalanches that is), this resulted in a paper in JDoc. At Glasgow, I also worked on a number of TREC submissions and also co-wrote the guidelines for creating the very short queries introduced in TREC-6. Finally, I was involved in lecturing work on the AIS Advanced MSc course writing and presenting two short courses on Implementation and NLP applied to IR. I also supervised/co-supervised four MSc students. The work of three of these bright young things have been published in a number of good conferences.

My first introduction to IR was the building (with Iain Campbell) of an interface to a probabilistic IR system

Research interests/publications/lecturing/supervising

My publications list probably does a reasonable job of ostensively defining my interests and past activities. For those with a preference for more explicit definitions, see below.

I'm now working at the CIIR with an interest in automatically constructed categorisations and means of explaining these constructions to users. I also plan to work some more on a couple aspects of my thesis that look promising.

Supervised by Keith van Rijsbergen in the Glasgow IR group, I finished my Ph.D. in 1997 looking at the issues surrounding the use of Word Sense Disambiguation applied to IR: a number of publications have resulted from this work. While doing my Ph.D., I was fortunate enough to apply for and get a small grant which enabled Ross Purves and I to investigate the use of IR ranked retrieval in the field of avalanche forecasting (snow avalanches that is), this resulted in a paper in JDoc. At Glasgow, I also worked on a number of TREC submissions and also co-wrote the guidelines for creating the very short queries introduced in TREC-6. Finally, I was involved in lecturing work on the AIS Advanced MSc course writing and presenting two short courses on Implementation and NLP applied to IR. I also supervised/co-supervised four MSc students. The work of three of these bright young things have been published in a number of good conferences.

My first introduction to IR was the building (with Iain Campbell) of an interface to a probabilistic IR system

Some sites better than others?
  • Hubs and authorities
    • Search for “Harvard”
        • Gibson, D., Kleinberg, J., Raghavan, P. (1998): Inferring Web Communities from Link Topology, in Proceedings of The 9th ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia: links, objects, time and space—structure in hypermedia systems: 225-234
like google
Like Google?
  • www.google.com
  • Base ranking on best match plus authority weight
  • Harder to spam authorities?
popularity
Popularity?
  • Query IMDB (www.imdb.org) for “Titanic”

Titanic (1915)

Titanic (1997)

Titanic (1943)

Titanic (1953)

Titanic 2000 (1999)

Titanic: Anatomy of a Disaster (1997)

Titanic: Answers from the Abyss (1999)

Titanic Chronicles, The (1999)

Titanic in a Tub: The Golden Age of Toy Boats (1981)

Titanic Too: It Missed the Iceberg (2000)

Titanic Town (1998)

Titanic vals (1964)...aka Titanic Waltz (1964) (USA)

Atlantic (1929)...aka Titanic: Disaster in the Atlantic (1999) (USA: video title)

Night to Remember, A (1958)...aka Titanic latitudine 41 Nord (1958) (Italy)

Gigantic (2000)...aka Untitled Titanic Spoof (1998) (USA: working title)

use popularity
Use popularity
  • Query “titanic” on IMDB
    • Titanic (1997)
    • Titanic Too: It Missed the Iceberg (2000)
other examples
Other examples
  • Direct Hit
    • www.directhit.com
    • Increasingly popular
url specific stuff
URL specific stuff
  • Prefer web pages with short URLs
    • http://dis.shef.ac.uk/mark/
    • http://dis.shef.ac.uk/mark/trivia/links/stuff/
  • Prefer with “.com”
    • not “.pt”?
conclusions
Conclusions
  • By now, you will be able to
    • describe a range of statistically based approaches to IR namely
      • Best match ranking
      • Passage retrieval
      • Web page popularity techniques
      • Web link counting
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