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Learning Gap Linked to ELL/ LEP Instruction. Osterling – EDCI516-B01 Summer 2002. Objectives. As a result of this class, students will be able to add information to their knowledge base about SLA and literacy . They will continue to link class readings and discussion to classroom practice.

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Learning Gap Linked toELL/ LEP Instruction

Osterling – EDCI516-B01 Summer 2002

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  • As a result of this class, students will be able to add information to their knowledge base about SLA and literacy.

    • They will continue to link class readings and discussion to classroom practice.

    • They will gain an understanding of some of the research currently being conducted with SLLs.

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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ELL/ LEA Challenges

  • Assist students develop:

    • Cognitive,

    • Linguistic,

    • Social abilities.

  • While they struggle with the multiple challenges of:

    • Language acquisition;

    • Academic learning;

    • Social adaptation.

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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Research Question

  • How can we take the strengths that ELL/ LEP bring to school and enliven the school experience by connecting it in meaningful ways to their lives, deepening their knowledge?

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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Our GoalCreating a Global Community Life-Long Learners

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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Underlying Assumption

  • No single approach or program model works best in every situation.

  • Many different approaches can be successful when implemented well.

  • Local conditions, choices, and innovation are critical ingredients of success.

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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ELL/ LEP Students

  • 4,416,580 students enrolled in public schools

    (PK -12). 1999-2000 school year.

  • 9.3% of total public student enrollment.

  • Some 400 different world languages.

  • 76.6% are Spanish-speakers.

  • Some 40 percent never graduate from high school.

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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What Are the Most Common Language Groups for LEP Students?Anneka Kindler, NCBE

  • In 1999-2000, states reported over 400 languages spoken by ELL/ LEP students nationwide.

    • Spanish (76%);

    • Vietnamese (2.3%);

    • Hmong (2.2%);

    • Haitian Creole (1.1%);

    • Korean (1.1%);

    • Cantonese (1.0%). 

  • All other language groups represented less than 1% of the LEP student population. 

  • http://www.ncbe.gwu.edu/askncbe/faqs/05toplangs.htm

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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Black & Hispanic: Growth

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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Bilingualism: Additive / Subtractive

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills.

Aspects of communication used daily in routine communication exchanges.

Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency.

CALP skills are those that are necessary for literacy obtainment and academic success.

Cummins: BICS & CALP

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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Bilingual EducationBridging and Building

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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Wide RangeMethods and Programs

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Academic Needs of L2/Bilingual Learners

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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Bilingual Education in the US: 1950s – 1960s

  • In 1958, following the Soviet launching of the first artificial earth satellite, curriculum reforms resulted in improved instruction not only in math and science, but in foreign languages (Gonzalez, 1979).

  • Cuban revolution (1959) brought many new Spanish-speaking residents to southern Florida.

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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Miami’s Coral Way Elementary School

  • America’s oldest 20th century public bilingual school.

  • In 1963, Coral Way responded to the educational needs of Cuban children who began arriving in the early 1960s by becoming a bilingual school.

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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Forty years later:Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Programs in the U.S.

  • 260 programs in 23 states. All meet three of the following criteria:

  • Integration: Language-minority and language-majority students are integrated for at least 50% of instructional time at all grade levels

  • Instruction: Content and literacy instruction in both languages is provided to all students.

  • Population: Within the program, there is a balance of language-minority and language-majority students, with each group making up between one-third and two-thirds of the total student population

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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Models of Bilingual Education Sources of Differences

  • Goals & objectives

  • Cultural, linguistic & pedagogical assumptions

  • Use of L1 & L2 as a medium of instruction

  • Use of L2 teaching methodology

  • Grouping & placement procedures

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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Many Different Methods

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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U.S. Challenges in L2 Education

  • Teacher preparation & professional development

  • Program selection, design and implementation to fit local goals & needs

  • Second-language and academic content instruction based on high academic standards

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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Some Common Terms & Labels Bilingual Education

  • Submersion & Immersion

  • Transitional bilingual education (TBE)

  • Mainstreaming

  • Dual Language Program/ Dual Immersion/

    Two-Way Immersion/ Two Way Bilingual Education.

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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Submersion or “Sink or Swim”

  • Provides little or no structured support for second language learning

  • Assumes that some, possibly most, students will fail if they don’t learn English fast enough to keep up in the mainstream

  • Tends to “blame the victim” for failures of the system

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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English as a Second Language

  • Sets aside time for direct teaching of English skills using second-language methodology

  • Preferably intensive, but often inadequate in duration and concentration

  • Can be fragmented; not easily transferred to core curriculum

  • Can be accompanied by low expectations

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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ESL Pullout

  • Least effective and most costly model – requires extra ESL resource teachers.

  • Most common type of program for ELL.

  • ELL/ LEP students miss important academic subjects.

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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ESL Content Classes Sheltered Instruction

  • ELL/ LEP students receive access simultaneously to both the English language and academic content-math, science, and social studies.

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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Content-Area InstructionSpecially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE)

  • Focuses on teaching content (social studies, math, science, etc.) with modifications for intermediate language proficiency

  • Strong emphasis on developing conceptual understanding and L2 literacy

  • Maintains high expectations, but assumes a lag in development of native-speaker equivalent language and academic skills

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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English Immersion

  • Instruction is entirely in “simplified” English so ELL/ LEP students can learn English and academic subjects.

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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Structured English Immersion

  • An over-extended term that loosely describes a program for educating language minority students in English

  • Intended to be a spiraling standards-based curriculum designed according to principles and research in second-language acquisition.

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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Transitional Bilingual EducationTBE L1 & TL

  • Teaches literacy in students’ primary language

  • Uses second language teaching methodology

  • Phases in L2 as a medium of instruction

  • Requires structured content-area instruction according to students’ language proficiency

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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& early

















The Transitional Model

of Bilingual Education

Unknown Concepts -- Known Language

Known Concepts -- Unknown Language

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Spanish Literacy

Literacy Block: LiteratureStudies & Thematic Units

Read aloud Oral Language

Emergent Literacy

Independent Reading

Musical-Art-Cultural Activities

Content Areas

Math Science Social Studies


1. Concept Development in Spanish 2. ESL Reinforcement

Spanish Monolinguals

Bilingual Students =

Bilingual Instruction

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Enrichment Models

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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Total or Partial Immersion

  • Requires fully trained bilingual teachers

  • Uses the target language (L2) as a medium of instruction

  • Has full biliteracy as its principle goal and outcome

  • Assumes that advantages of bilingualism compensate for delayed academics

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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Dual Immersion

  • Students with different first languages are grouped so that each learns the other group’s language

  • Promotes true additive bilingualism and biculturalism

  • Demonstrated to enhance cognitive abilities as well as language & academic skills

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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L2 (Spanish) Proficiency

Native English Speakers

L1 (English)Literacy & Content Knowledge

Goal: Bilingualism + Biliteracy

L1 (Spanish)Literacy & Content Knowledge

Native Spanish Speakers

L2 (English) Proficiency

K through 6th Grades

Dual Immersion Model

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Dominant Language Instruction

Bilingual Teacher

Non-Bilingual Teacher

Literacy Block: 90 to 180 Minutes

Spanish-English Literacy

English Monolingual Bilingual Spanish Monolingual

Second Language Instruction



Bilingual Guided & Independent Reading

Content Area Block: 90 to 180 Minutes

Social Studies/Science/Math

Dominant Language Instruction


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Dual Language Instruction

  • Transitional Bilingual Education

  • Dual or Two Way Immersion

  • Content-based Foreign Language Instruction with L2 used as a medium of instruction

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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English Language Development

  • Focus is on language teaching using L2 methods

  • Designed for lower levels of language proficiency

  • Emphasis is on listening, speaking & early literacy instruction

  • Organized around themes based on academic standards in the content areas

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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Factors in Selection of aBilingual Education Model

  • Demographic characteristics of students and the community

  • Legal mandates

  • Available resources

  • Commitment to language minority education

  • Program implementation and effectiveness

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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Dual Language Instructional Model-Program Congruency

  • The chosen model of bilingual education must provide guidelines and procedures that are congruent with teachers’ beliefs about effective dual language instruction.

  • Teachers’ beliefs must be congruent with their patterns of language use in the classroom.

  • Actual patterns of language use in program implementation must be congruent with the theoretical principles expressed in the model of dual language instruction.

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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Principles of Effective Language Minority Program Implementation

  • Full and faithful implementation of a sound model of language minority education will lead to an effective program.

  • An unsound model of L2 education will not yield an effective language minority program

EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002

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Bilingual Education: Overview Web Sites

Source: Education Week on the Web, special issue on Bilingual Education


EDCI 516-B01 Summer 2002