cs 575 spring 2010 2010 05 8 n.
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CS 575 Spring 2010 2010-05 -8. K.V. Bapa Rao. Outline. Administrative Review of previous class Discussion of Engelbart’s Paper ( contd ) Student Presentations Licklider’s papers General Discussion Summary Agenda for next meeting. Administrative. Student Presentations.

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outline
Outline
  • Administrative
  • Review of previous class
  • Discussion of Engelbart’sPaper (contd)
  • Student Presentations
  • Licklider’s papers
  • General Discussion
  • Summary
  • Agenda for next meeting
student presentations
Student Presentations
  • Deirdre Foster: Convergence
  • Michael Dahl: Brain-computer integration
  • AspetGolestanian: History
reminder a flexible structure for our study
REMINDER: A [flexible] structure for our study
  • ‘Human issues’ is all-encompassing
  • Many interlocking dimensions
  • Human roles vis-à-vis the computer
    • User
    • Inventor / researcher
    • Visionary
    • Content creator
    • Hacker
    • Criminal
    • Business person
    • Wealth generator
  • Human-computer coupling
    • Symbiosis, tool, …
a flexible structure for our study contd
A [flexible] structure for our study (contd)
  • Domains of human activity
    • Education, Entertainment, Play, Family, Reproduction, Art ,Wealth generation, Government, consumption, religion, philosophy, …
  • Values
    • Many values depend on role, domain, …
    • Absolute values?
    • Creativity, aesthetics, access, opportunity, freedom, spirituality, rationality, peace, brotherhood, prosperity, …
  • Vision, potentials, realities
    • Babbage’s Analytical Engine, Bush’s Memex, …
  • Pragmatics
    • Is it possible? How to get there?
    • Techniques, Design, Technology,
  • Scaling and emergent phenomena
    • Will a whole new thing emerge if huge numbers of humans interact with computers in a certain way? How do we understand that ‘thing’?
  • Other aspects, dimensions?
augmenting the human intellect
Augmenting the Human Intellect
  • 1962Engelbart’s report/proposal to Air Force Ofc. Of Scientific Research
    • http://www.dougengelbart.org/pubs/augment-3906.html
  • Capability to obtain better solutions to complex problems
  • New conceptual framework
    • Not small tricks
  • Example scenario: an architect’s workday
    • Design alternatives
    • Operational environments
    • Functional specifications
    • Detailed design
    • Tools
      • Synthesis, analysis, verification, debugging
engelbart overview
Engelbart Overview
  • Conceptual framework is needed to know
    • What to augment
      • artifacts
      • language
      • methodology
      • Training
    • Goal: problem solving process
      • Process is what we actually do, and are trying to do more effectively
    • Structure or organization across the board
      • Little steps, organized as a process hierarchy
        • Versus objects?
      • Process repertoire or toolkit
      • Basic capabilities (‘hardware’) to higher-level capabilities
        • Synergy, emergent capabilities, …
      • Which subprocess to choose?
        • Executive Capability: planning, selecting, and supervising
    • Augmentation impact
      • Suppose you had a better writing tool…
        • Hardware, software, dictionary, spell checker, fact researcher, …
        • Pencil to word processor
          • Benefits?
          • Break down old process, come up with new process
          • New capabilities!
engelbart contd
Engelbart (contd)
  • Capability repertoire hierarchy
    • Basic capabilities (human and artifact) are the raw materials
    • Mental structuring (cognitive structures)
      • Development Models: garden, basketball team, machine building
    • Concept structuring
    • Symbol structuring
    • Process structuring
      • ‘M’ in H-LAM/T
    • Physical structuring
      • A in H-LAM/T
    • Interdependence among all these structures
engelbart contd1
Engelbart (contd)
  • How did humans get ‘augmented’ during our development?
    • 1. concept manipulation
    • 2. symbol manipulation
    • 3. Manual, External, Symbol Manipulation
  • Whorf’s hypothesis: Language affects our thinking and capabilities
    • 4. Automated external symbol manipulation (neo-whorfian: technology affects language and capabilities)
      • Language can also evolve to meet conceptual and task needs (counterargument to whorfian hypothesis)
engelbart contd2
Engelbart (contd)
  • Brick-pencil experiment
engelbart contd3
Engelbart (contd)
  • Brick-pencil expt (de-augmentation)
    • Typewriter: 7 sec
    • Pencil: 20 secs
    • Brick, small letters: 65+ secs
    • Brick, large letters: 42 secs
  • Impacts on effectiveness of culture
    • Too hard too few people doing it
    • Different concepts for work, record-keeping, etc.
  • What about known impacts of actual augmentation, 46 years after Engelbart wrote this proposal?
engelbart contd4
Engelbart (contd)
  • Concept structuring
    • concepts are tools
    • concepts have handles--representations
    • concept structures map to mental structures
    • some concept structures are better than others
    • language (natural lang esp) is the grand concept structuring tool
engelbart contd5
Engelbart (contd)
  • Symbol structuring
    • some symbols work better than others
      • depends on the purpose
    • need flexibility, translatability
    • view generation capability (rather than physical linear ordering)
engelbart contd6
Engelbart (contd)
  • Interdependence among hierarchies
    • Cyclic
    • Regenerative
      • Improvement in one category feeds improvement in other categories
engelbart contd7
Engelbart (contd)
  • Roles and levels
    • executive
    • direct-contributive
  • model of executive superstructure
    • Bureaucratic hierarchy is onerous
    • contractor-subcontractor model
  • Flexibility in the Executive Role
    • executive tasks are complex
    • orderly flexibility requirement on symbol etc. structures is costly
    • disorderly process of change must be supported
      • ‘agile methodologies’
engelbart contd8
Engelbart (contd)
  • Who will benefit
    • Every person who does his thinking with symbolized concepts
      • Human language, pictographs, formal logic, mathematics, …
    • Architects, engineers, lawyers, writers, …
    • ‘information workers’
human computer symbiosis
Human-computer symbiosis
  • Issues
    • Speed mismatch
    • System requirements (hardware, memory, …)
    • Organizational mismatch: Memory organization (Information structuring and retrieval)
    • Language mismatch
      • What versus how
    • I/O mismatch
      • Voice, mobile, touch, …
computer as communication device
Computer as communication device
  • “In a few years, men will be able to communicate more effectively through a machine than face to face”
  • What is communication?
    • Two tape recorders exchanging data
    • Two humans having a meeting
    • Collaborative Modeling
licklider contd economics
Licklider Contd--Economics
  • Models are complex
  • Simplification is risky and dangerous
    • Oversimplification
    • Premature simplification
  • Communicating models is expensive
    • Cost of not doing it?
licklider contd
Licklider Contd
  • Computer as switch vs. interactor
  • Distributed intellectual resources
    • ‘critical creative mass’
  • Vision of internet
    • Store-and-forward technology
  • Economics: billing models
vision of internet
Vision of internet
  • Node
  • Mediator for online life: OLIVER
  • Social groups
  • Better for individual
  • Better for society
summary
Summary
  • Human Augmentation & Man-Computer symbiosis studied systematically very early on
  • Licklider’s vision of internet was based on communication

Led to TCP/IP