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Internet POPs, Telecom Hotels, and Internet Data Centers. CS 294-3 – The Converged Network Spring 2002 George Porter. Internet: collection of networks. This talk is about connectivity and computation How do the networks in the Internet communicate with each other?

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internet pops telecom hotels and internet data centers

Internet POPs, Telecom Hotels, and Internet Data Centers

CS 294-3 – The Converged Network

Spring 2002

George Porter

U.C. Berkeley -- EECS

internet collection of networks
Internet: collection of networks
  • This talk is about connectivity and computation
    • How do the networks in the Internet communicate with each other?
    • What do transit providers do with their traffic?
    • Motivation for computation in the network (Internet Data Centers)

U.C. Berkeley -- EECS

nsfnet
NSFnet
  • 1987-1995
  • Managed by Merit
    • ANS, IBM, MCI, State of Michigan
  • Consisted of T-1 connections
  • In 1992, moved to T-3 links run by Advanced Network & Services (ANSnet)

U.C. Berkeley -- EECS

post nfsnet
Post NFSnet
  • vBNS (very high-speed backbone network services) run by MCI
  • Additional NAPs (Network Access Points)
    • MAE-East, D.C. – MFS Datanet (now MCI Worldcom)
    • Ameritech, Chicago – Ameritech
    • PacBell, San Jose – PacBell
    • Sprint, Pennsauken, NJ - Sprint

U.C. Berkeley -- EECS

many new commercial naps
ATLnap (Atlanta)

Bellcore Multimedia exchange

NY6iX – New York IPv6

MAE-LA

Seattle IX

MAE-Houston

PAIX

Equinix

eXchange

Linx (London)

FreeIX (France)

AMS-IX (Amsterdam)

etc

Many new Commercial NAPs

U.C. Berkeley -- EECS

internet pops two examples
Internet POPs: Two Examples
  • NeoSoft Inc., Houston Texas
  • AMS-IX (Amsterdam)

U.C. Berkeley -- EECS

internet pops two examples10
Internet POPs: Two Examples
  • NeoSoft Inc., Houston Texas
  • AMS-IX (Amsterdam)

U.C. Berkeley -- EECS

slide11
BBS in 1989, became an ISP in 1992
  • Founder Karl Lehenbauer (Left)
  • I worked there from 1994-1999

U.C. Berkeley -- EECS

initial connectivity
Initial Connectivity
  • Originally, NeoSoft connected to NSFnet via Sesquinet @ Rice
  • T1 cost $14k up front, $2k/month
  • Cisco router IGS $10k
  • 198.??.xx.yy from Sesquinet’s address space

U.C. Berkeley -- EECS

new connectivity
New Connectivity
  • Eventually bought fractional DS3 from MCI (Sprint wouldn’t route less than /20 due to problems)
  • On own CIDR block (128 class C’s: 206.109)
  • BGP-4 running on Cisco 7513 Router
  • $15k/month

U.C. Berkeley -- EECS

peering
Peering
  • Peered with UUnet for 2 months
    • NeoSoft had a large webserver, and served out much more traffic than inbound
  • Became member of MAE/Houston
  • MAGE (Metro Area Gigabit Ethernet) via Phonoscope ($4k/month!)

U.C. Berkeley -- EECS

experiences in peering
Experiences in Peering
  • Many other local providers didn’t have a clue!
    • INSYNC misconfigured their routes, and traffic would be outbound through MAGE, inbound through random other routes
    • Often advertised incorrect BGP updates
  • PSInet: Advertised Dial-up ISDN

U.C. Berkeley -- EECS

hops multihoming
Hops, Multihoming
  • In 1994, the Sprint and MCI handoff was in Chicago
    • 20 hops to next door neighbor
    • Eventually exchanged in Dallas
  • Experimented with Multihoming (DS3 and T1 to Cable & wireless)
    • Not too good, BGP administration
    • Plan was for recovery

U.C. Berkeley -- EECS

neosoft internet america
NeoSoft  Internet America
  • In 1999, Internet America buys NeoSoft for $8M
  • Houston office closes
  • I get laid off 

U.C. Berkeley -- EECS

internet pops two examples18
Internet POPs: Two Examples
  • NeoSoft Inc., Houston Texas
  • AMS-IX (Amsterdam)

U.C. Berkeley -- EECS

ams ix
AMS-IX
  • Carrier-neutral peering point
  • Founded in 1994
  • 100+ members
  • 565 Tbytes/month
  • AT&T, Akamai, Dynegy, Digital Island, Deutsche Telecom, France Telecom, Global Crossing, UUnet NL, etc

U.C. Berkeley -- EECS

organization
Organization

U.C. Berkeley -- EECS

how to join
How to Join
  • Companies apply for membership after agreeing to numerous policies (sometimes voting is involved)
  • Cost
    • 10baseT = 500,00 euro/month
    • 100baseT = 850,00 euro/month
    • 1000base T = 1200,00 euro/month
  • 1 euro = 0.87 USD (12/26/2002)

U.C. Berkeley -- EECS

computation in the network
Computation in the network
  • It makes sense to move servers and content to places of high connectivity
  • By the economics of scale it is cheaper to provide connectivity, power, management, etc to many customers at a central site

U.C. Berkeley -- EECS

example exchange
Example: eXchange
  • Paul Ave location in SF: 350K sq. ft
  • People can rent cabinets, racks, cages
  • In addition to being a data center, also a huge connectivity point

U.C. Berkeley -- EECS

services
Services
  • UPS + generator
  • Office space
  • Climate Control
  • “Meet me” room with carriers and other service providers
  • Professional monitoring
  • Security (hand scanners, guards)
  • Fire control

U.C. Berkeley -- EECS

waveexchange
waveExchange
  • Unique facility located across the street from eXchange
  • 20+ carriers
  • Near fiber routes/loops
  • Carriers can meet in “meet me rooms”
  • Service between ASPs, ISPs, CDNs…
  • Opened Nov 2, 2001

U.C. Berkeley -- EECS

tenants of waveexchange
Tenants of waveExchange
  • AT&T, Cogent, Enron, Level3, PacBell, Qwest, Sigma, Worldcom, Williams Communications, Xo, PAIX, others
  • Network effect
  • Huge connectivity + Highly available services

U.C. Berkeley -- EECS

summary
Summary
  • Progression from leased lines to NAPs to peering points gives ISPs options
  • I haven’t even mentioned private peering arrangements
  • Putting computation in the network at the points of connectivity enables new services that can meet demand

U.C. Berkeley -- EECS