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The Integration of Renewable Energy onto the Existing Grid. Dr Norman MacLeod Technical Director, HVDC. Hydro-electric Power. Run of the river schemes use the natural force of the water to turn the turbines Minimal environmental impact Dams create a head of water which turns the turbines

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the integration of renewable energy onto the existing grid

The Integration of Renewable Energy onto the Existing Grid

Dr Norman MacLeod

Technical Director, HVDC

hydro electric power
Hydro-electric Power

Run of the river schemes use the natural force of the water to turn the turbines

  • Minimal environmental impact

Dams create a head of water which turns the turbines

  • Significant environmental impact

Micro-hydro generation

  • Diverting water from local streams
  • Connected to the local community
wind power
Wind Power

On-shore

  • wind farms are typically 10 – 50MW
  • Turbines typically up to 3MW rating
  • Connected at distribution voltage level

Off-shore

  • wind farms are typically up to 600MW (AC connected) and 1200MW (DC connected)
  • Turbines up to 8MW
  • Connected at transmission voltage level
solar power
Solar Power

Domestic

  • Connected to the low voltage distribution grid
  • Supplies local loads and any excess is fed into the distribution grid

Commercial

  • Photovoltaic panels generate electricity at low voltage DC
  • Conversion from DC to AC is needed for connection to the transmission grid
renewable energy sources
Renewable Energy Sources

Other sources

  • Wave power – in development
  • Tidal power – barrage schemes in use
  • Tidal power – submerged turbines in development
  • Bio-mass – in use as a coal replacement
  • Electric vehicles – both a load and a generator
the issues
The Issues
  • Intermittency of power generation
  • Remoteness of power sources from load centres
  • Impacts on system stability -
  • Loss of inertia on the network – closure of rotating plant
  • Harmonic distortion – Irish Grid Code
  • Low voltage ride-through – Irish grid Code
the solutions
The Solutions
  • Diversity of power sources
    • Fossil fuels + renewables
  • Grid enhancement
    • AC transmission lines and/or HVDC embedded links
  • HVDC interconnectors to neighbouring grids (UK, France)
  • Dynamic reactive power devices
    • SVC or STATCOM
  • Harmonic filters
    • Passive and/or active
  • Advanced power electronic controllers
    • “Synthetic inertia”
  • Storage systems
source alstom
Source : AlstomOff-shore Wind Farm (AC)

On-shore sub-station

AC Collector Platform

Wind Turbines

Submarine cable

source siemens
Source : SiemensSTATCOM

Greater Gabbard off-shore wind farm, UK

  • Control of reactive power flow
  • Low voltage ride through
  • Harmonic distortion
  • System stability
hvdc transmission
HVDC Transmission

i

i

i

Idc

Iac

Iac

t

t

t

source eirgrid
Source : EirGridEast West Interconnector (EWIC)

Eirgrid

National Grid

AC

AC

AC S/S

AC S/S

45km

181km

34km

DC

DC

Woodland Converter Station

Shotton Converter Station

±200kV XLPE Cables

source eirgrid1
Source : EirGridWoodland Converter Station

Exterior view of converter station

Interior view – converter hall

ireland hvdc schemes
Ireland HVDC Schemes

Existing Interconnectors

Future interconnectors

Embedded links

the existing ac grid

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

The Existing AC Grid

400 kV

AC

AC

110 kV

110 kV

10 kV

10 kV

10 kV

400 V

400 V

400 V

the grid of the future

320 kV

DC

AC

Bulk power import using HVDC

DC

DC

DC

DC

DC

DC

DC

DC

DC

DC

DC

DC

DC

DC

DC

DC

150 kV

150 kV

DC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

50 kV

50 kV

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC

10 kV

10 kV

DC

DC

DC

DC

500 V

500 V

Electric Vehicle

Charging Station

Battery

Energy

Storage

System

Photo

Voltaic

Power Cells

station

The Grid of the Future?

400 kV

AC

AC

Offshore

wind farm

DC

DC

150 kV

150 kV

110 kV

110 kV

10 kV

35kV

10 kV

400 V

400 V

400 V

conclusions
Conclusions
  • High levels of renewable generation can result in significant issues on the existing AC network
  • Smart grid solutions can be used to support and manage integration of renewable energy sources
  • Smart Grids = Power Electronics + Automation Systems
slide17

Any questions?

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