Bone Broth: Traditional Food • Broth, made from animal bones, has been used throughout the ages as nourishment and for healing purposes. • We know it as a remedy for colds and flu, but beyond this it has been historically used to heal connective tissue, gi tract, joints, skin, lungs, and muscles. • Used more in cultures or culinary traditions where the whole animal is used. Uses parts of the animals that we typically throw away today. (feet, heads, back, knuckles). • Decrease in broth preparation coincides with a decrease in home cooking in general and the industrial food revolution.
Bone Broth: Traditional Food • The gelatin in bone broth was seen as a nutrient dense, inexpensive food particularly by the French, who were seeking ways to feed their armies and vast numbers of homeless in Paris and other cities. • In the 1800’s, Florence Nightingale healed the sick with bone broth. "Beef tea may be chosen as an illustration of great nutrient power in sickness, There is a certain reparative quality in itandit may be safely given in almost any inflammatory disease...where much nourishment is required.” • Broth is making a comeback as a nourishing base for cooking and as a stand alone therapeutic food.
Stock • Stock is water simmered with vegetables, aromatics, and animal bones. • Sometimes bones are roasted, and sometimes with some meat still attached. • Cooked 4 to 6 hours, then strained. It is usually not seasoned at this stage. • Goal of stock is to extract the collagen from the connective tissues and bones being simmered, which give stock its thick, gelatinous quality. • When chilled, good stock should have the texture of Jell-O. Stock is typically used to deglaze a pan, or as a base for a rich sauce or gravy. • Stock is also a great binder to use instead of cream or butter, or used in a broth-like manner (just add some water to it).
Broth • Broth is water simmered with vegetables, aromatics, and meat, and can include some bones. • Cooked for a short period of time, usually 45 minutes to 2 hours, then strained and seasoned. • The goal of broth is to use a combination of ingredients to create a light, flavorful liquid that can be enjoyed on it's own as a soup (or soup base along with other ingredients). • Broth usually stays fluid when chilled. • Made with meat and can contain a small amount of bones (example: whole chicken). • Light in flavor, thin, rich in protein.
Bone Broth • Bone broth is a hybrid of broth and stock. • Cooked for a long period of time, often more than 24 hours. • Goal is to both extract the gelatin from the bones, andalso release the nutritious minerals. • Contains mostly bones. Bones are typically roasted for flavor- simmered for 24 hours. • Cooked with an acid such as apple cider vinegar or tomato paste. • Removes as many minerals and nutrients from the bones as possible. • Bones should crumble lightly because so many nutrients have been extracted.
Cooking Tips • Roast the bones firstfor flavor. • Need an acid to bring out the minerals Could use tomato paste or apple cider vinegar • Should be simmered on low. Heating it to high can ruin the flavor and the gelatin. • Must be cooked long enough for gelatin to form. • Cover the bones with water, but do not use too much water. (gel will not form) • The fat does not need to be skimmedoff of the top at the end of the cooking.
Quality of the Bones • Organically-raised, pastured or grass-fed animals. • Chickens raised in confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) tend to produce stock that doesn't form gelatin.
Uses for bone broth • Drink it plain: breakfast of champions • “Sports” drink • Use as a base for soups • Braise meats or veggies in it. • Cook beans or lentils in it. • Cook grains in it. • Reduce it and use it for gravy
Specific Nutrients in Bone Broth • Bone Broth affects every part of the body. Gut to brain to muscles to ligaments. • Low in calories, high in nutrients. Contains: • Amino Acids • Trace Minerals • Gelatin and Collagen • Glucosamine and Chondroitin
Overview of Benefits of Bone Broth • The gelatin in bone broth protects and heals the mucosal lining of the digestive tract and helps aid in the digestion of nutrients. • Fights infections such as colds and flu. • The glucosamine in bone broth can actually stimulate the growth of new collagen, repair damaged joints, and reduce pain and inflammation. • The collagen and gelatin in bone broth supports hair growth, skin elasticity, and keeps nails strong.
Overview of Benefits of Bone Broth • Magnesium and phosphorus in bone broth help bones to form, grow and repair. • Bone broth is very high in the anti-inflammatory amino acids glycine and proline, therefore it fights inflammation. • The amino acid glycine found in bone broth can be very calming, promotes sleep and calms the mind.
Overview of Benefits of Bone Broth • Homemade bone broth is cheaper and healthier than store bought. Super easy to make. Saves you money. • All you need is a crockpot or a stock pot. Throw all of the ingredients into the crockpot and it cooks while you do other things! • Healthier and cheaper than buying supplements. Homemade bone broth contains all nutrients and minerals found in bones and tendons rather than just one or two found in pills. • Slow cooking preserves the nutrients better than the high heat extraction which is typically used to make supplements.
Amino Acids • Amino acids such as glycine, proline, glutamine and arginine all have anti-inflammatory effects. • Amino acids stimulate muscle protein synthesis. They are essential for growth, maintenance, and repair of skeletal muscle groups.
Amino Acid: Proline • Helps to makes collagen • Repairs cartilage • Promotes skin elasticity and nail health • Keeps arteries from stiffening
Amino Acid: Glutamine • Heals the gut • Growth of the villi • Helpful in celiac’s, crohn’s, colitis • Cell proliferation • Muscle building
Amino Acid: Arginine • Treatment of sepsis (whole-body inflammation). • Supports kidney function • wound healing • improves heart health
Amino acid: Glycine • Simplest amino acid. Used to make other amino acids • Necessary for digestive health • Produces glutathione: necessary for blood sugar regulation • Enhances muscle repair/ growth • Glycine also has calming effects, which may help you sleep better.
Collagen • Collagen is the most important protein in connective tissue, skin, and bones; there is more collagen in your body than any other type of protein. • Collagen is found mostly in the odd bits and pieces and tougher cuts of beef that contain a lot of connective tissue. These are parts of the animals that our ancestors ate, but we typically throw away today. • Cooking the collagen transforms it into gelatin. Gelatin is the cooked form of collagen. It’s how we can eat the amino acids without eating raw meat.
Collagen • Collagen” “glue” that holds our body together. • Comes from the word, kolla, the Greek word for glue. • When we make broth, we turn skin, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments into a rich natural gelatin liquid glue. • This gelatin is the by-product of the breakdown that occurs during cooking. • This ‘glue’ is called connective tissue made from multiple proteins that form the twisted cables that strengthen the tendons, ligaments and allow muscles to connect to bone. • Collagen is the secret to well-cushioned joints. There are as many as 29 distinct types of collagen that exist in animal tissues.
Collagen • The health of your joints depends upon the health of the collagen in your ligaments, tendons, and on the ends of your bones. • Collagens are a large family of biomolecules, which include the glycosaminoglycans. • Bone broth is loaded with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), molecules that keep joints healthy. Most common is glucosamine, chondroitin and hyaluronic acid. • The GAGs we get from bone broth are resistant to digestion and are absorbed in their intact form.
Gelatin • Healthy skin and nails • Arthritis relief • Cell protecting • Blood sugar regulation • Improves sleep • Normalize stomach acid • Supplementary Protein • Digestive support • Strengthens the gut lining • Bone broth is the original gelatin source. • Bone broth should turn into chicken or beef jello when you stick it in the fridge. That is how you know it truly contains gelatin.
Gelatin • Gelatin attracts digestive juices to it so it can aid in the digestion of the minerals from the bone broth, and alsoin other foods such as proteins, grains, gluten, etc. • Helps distribute the digestive action evenly through food so that eliminates a need for food combining. • Reduces digestive stress from other cooked foods.
Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate • Needed for healthy cartilage and tissue. • Glucosamine is one of the 8 essential protein sugars that the body needs. We all get enough glucose but not necessarily all of the others. • Big in the supplement industry but better to get it from the broth.
Cartilage • Cartilage in bone broth may help treat symptoms of degenerative joint diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis. • It contains chondroitin sulphateand glucosamine, which are commonly sold as supplements to reduce inflammation, arthritis and joint pain.
Cartilage • Cartilage acts as our shock absorbers and reduces the friction between moving parts. • It relies on water and amino acids to remain spongy and resilient. • Best way to preserve our cartilage is to get the right amount of glycine, proline, glutamine and chondroitin sulfate and other nutrients which are found in bone broth.
Broth and Mental Health • In a 2003 study by Malaysian researchers, those who took broth experienced reduced anxiety. Participants reported that having one cup of bone broth daily for 3 months resulted in a noticeable and profound sense of strength mentally and emotionally. • This is not only coming from better brain function alone but better gut function. Both glycine and glutamine are critical for gut healing as discussed above. • The gut is commonly known as our “second brain” where there are more nerve endings than the spine and more manufacture of neurotransmitters than the brain. • How we feed the gut is how we feed the brain
Sports Drink and Hydration • Bone broth, especially made with the addition of vegetables, contains a lot of electrolytes and can hydrate better than water due to this electrolyte content. • Calcium, magnesium, and potassium help support healthy circulation, bone density, nerve signaling, functions, heart health and digestive health. Ideal balance of sodium and potassium for cellular health. • Bone Broth VS Gatorade
Dental Health • Weston A. Price- Dentist who studied bone formation • Broth promotes re-mineralization of the teeth because of: The presence of minerals. The presence of enough fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K). The bioavailability of these nutrients are and how well the body is able to absorb them.
Digestive Disorders • Digestive disorders are now in epidemic proportions in western culture. • In the 19th century, broth and gelatin were widely prescribed for people who could not digest food or who had little strength to aid in the process of digestion. • Broth and gelatin were prescribed for acid reflux and peptic ulcers because it modulated the hydrochloric acid.
Digestive Function • Collagen is decreased in individuals with digestive imbalances. The amino acids in collagen build tissue that lines the GI tract and colon, therefore collagen supports healthy digestive function. • Bone broth is easily digested. • Food is only useful if we have the nutrients to absorb it. • Increased mineral consumption improves digestion and gut health.
Gut Health • Leaky Gut: Undigested particles of food seep through the intestinal lining and enter the blood stream. Immune system detects them and increases inflammation and attacks healthy tissue. • The amino acids proline, glutamine, and arginine help seal these holes. • Gelatin and collagen are both also great for your gut – they help heal intestinal permeability (leaky gut) and restore the normal mucosal layer in the gut, and feed the good bacteria.
Healthy Gut Bacteria Amino acids such as glycine, alanine, proline and hydroxyproline- restorative amino acids that help promote healthy gut bacteria. Healthy gut bacteria help to improve mood, raise metabolism and aid in weight loss. Glutamine reduces firmicutes (type of bad bacteria) in the gut and aids in weight loss.
Detoxification • Broth helps the digestive system expel wastes. • Glycine promotes the liver’s ability to remove toxins, maintains tissue integrity, and helps the body use antioxidants. • Potassium and glycine in broth particularly support cellular and liver detoxification. • Glycine & Glutamine in broth contribute to the liver’s production of the glutathione needed to detoxify mercury and other heavy metals commonly stored in the gut lining. • Vital nutrients in general aid in the detoxification.
Inflammation • Glutamine specifically reduces gut inflammation • Chondroitin sulphates, glucosamine, and other compounds extracted from the boiled down cartilage reduce joint pain and inflammation
Bone Formation • Bone broth contains nutrients that are essential for bone formation. • Calcium, magnesium, phosphorus ,Vitamin D, Potassium, Zinc, Manganese, Copper, Boron, Iron, Vitamin A, K, B, and C.
Supplements • Popular supplements, glucosamine and chondroitin have become well known and used by many for joint complaints. However bone broth will give you many minerals and nutrients in addition to these and will be a better source of glucosamine and chondroitin. • The science is focusing less on just Calcium, Magnesium and Vitamin D for bone health, but also recognizing that minerals and collagen are essential for building strong flexible bones and preventing osteopenia and osteoporosis.
Standing the Test of Time • Nutrition texts from the 1920’s and 1930’s recommended mixing gelatin into infant formulas to help bring the cow’s milk closer to human milk. • Research over a 30 year period found that gelatin was proven to improve digestion of milk and milk products. • It emulsifies the fat and stabilizes the casein therefore improving digestibility and absorption of fat.
What about store bought broths? • MSG is a meaty flavor, but a neurotoxin. • Not cooked for as long so they do not contain the same vitamin and mineral content. • Often have a lot of additives (even if they are “natural”). • Does not have the same rich flavor. • May not even be made with bones. • Expensive
Bone Broth Recipes • http://cooking.nytimes.com/recipes/1017117-beef-bone-broth • http://paleoleap.com/making-fresh-bone-stock/ • http://thenourishingcook.com/beef-stock-anyone/ • https://wellnessmama.com/5888/how-to-make-bone-broth/
references • http://naturalhealthmedicine.com.au/bone-broth/ • Deep Nutrition: Why Your Genes Need Traditional Food by Catherine Shanahan and Luke Shanahan • Nourishing Traditions: The Cookbook that Challenges Politically Correct Nutrition and the Diet Dictocratsby Sally Fallon • Traditional Bone Broth in Modern Health and Disease, Allison Siebecker