URBDP 591 A Lecture 5: Literature review. Objectives Objectives of Literature review How to produce a Systematic & Reproducible Review Resources for Literature Review Example: Urban Patterns and Environmental Performance: What do we know?. Why Review the Literature.
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URBDP 591 A Lecture 5: Literature review Objectives • Objectives of Literature review • How to produce a Systematic & Reproducible Review • Resources for Literature Review • Example: Urban Patterns and Environmental Performance: What do we know?
Why Review the Literature • Become familiar with previous research • Understand how your idea fits existing theory • Determine the existing knowledge base • Relates your study to a larger body of knowledge • Shows importance of your study • Traces the history of the topic • Identify studies to replicate • Provide tested instruments • Identify testable hypotheses
Why citations are used in a scientific paper • They substantiate statements you make that are not your ideas, and give credit. • They allow the reader to verify your interpretations of other works. • They substantiate facts or data that are not from your own research. • They refer to previous studies related to your results, with which you should compare. • They provide detailed justification of methods, so you don’t have to derive or defend. • They give the reader material to go deeper into a topic than was necessary for your purposes
What is a LiteratureReview A systematic, explicit, and reproducible method for identifying,evaluating and interpreting an existing body of research. Literature review should • lead to a logical rationale of your research • position your study in a broader research effort • indicate how your study provides a logical extension of the existing knowledge
The definition of a scientific paper • (from Council of Science Editors) • An acceptable primary scientific publication must be • the first disclosure containing sufficient information to enable • peers to: • assess observations • repeat experiments • evaluate intellectual processes • It must be: • essentially permanent • available without restriction • available for regular screening by major citation • service providers
Structure of LiteratureReview - State your research question: specify variables, define conceptual model - What other researchers have asked - How other researchers approached their research question - What methods/techniques other researchers have used - What results other researchers have found
Research Sources PRIMARY SOURCES Journals Dissertations Theses Books Newspapers Conference papers Patents & Standards Reports SECONDARY SOURCES Indexes Abstracts TERTIARY SOURCES Catalogues Bibliographies
Why use Journals? • Articles on the latest news, trends and research • Primary research • Authors and sources of data identified • Refereed, peer reviewed • Specialized topics • Notice of work in progress
Literature Resources - Library Catalogues - Databases, Abstracts and Indices - On-line Journals - Governmental Publications - US Census - Datasets Web Resources
Abstracts & Indexes • The primary catalogue lists journal titles only. • Use abstracts & indexes to find relevant journal articles. • Most are available as searchable databases. • Search by keyword or author - quicker & easier than browsing the shelves! • Retrieve bibliographic details and an abstract for each article indexed. • Refers you to journals you might not have considered.
Databases Current Contents search Expanded academic index Geobase GeoRef BIOSIS Aquatic sciences & fisheries abstracts Sociological abstracts Columbia earthscape Science citation index Science direct search ProQuest databases
Journals (Sample) Annual review of ecology and systematics Applied soil ecology Aquatic conservation : marine and freshwater ecosystems Aquatic ecosystem health and management BioScience Conservation biology Ecological applications Ecological economics Ecological modelling Ecological monographs. Ecology Ecosystems Environmental and Planning Environmental Management Integrated Assessments Journal of the American Planning Association Journal of Planning Education and Research
Catalogues • UW Libraries catalog / Other University Library Catalogues • OCLC WorldCat • Consists of over 30 million catalog records and holdings information • for material owned by libraries around the world, including books, • journals, maps, sound recordings and other media, etc. • U.S. EPA Online Library System (OLS) • OLS is the Online Library System for the Library Network of the • United States Environmental Protection Agency. • Library of Congress • http://catalog.loc.gov/
Web of Sciencehttp://wos.isiglobalnet2.com/CIW.cgi • Subject coverage: • Social Sciences Citation Index • Science Citation Index • Arts & Humanities Citation Index • Index to Scientific & Technical Proceedings • Indexes journal articles, editorials, letters, • conference proceedings book reviews etc. • Search by keyword/author, or search for • references which cite a particular author, • article, or book.
Legislation • MarciveWeb DOCS • Catalog of U.S. Government Publications • http://www.marcive.com/webdocs/webdocs.dll • Congressional universe • http://web.lexis-nexis.com/congcomp • LEXIS-NEXIS academic universe • http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe • Library of Congress • http://catalog.loc.gov/
Datasets CENSUS http://www.census.gov/ CenStats http://tier2.census.gov/dbappweb.htm TIGER http://www.census.gov/ftp/pub/geo/www/tiger/ http://tiger.census.gov/ USGS http://www.usgs.gov/ The National Spatial DataInfrastructure (NSDI) http://fgdclearhs.er.usgs.gov/ Bureau of Transportation Statistics http://www.bts.gov/programs/gis/ntatlas/
Datasets Puget Sound Washington State Geospatial Data Archive http://wagda.lib.washington.edu/ Wagic Geospatial Metadata http://www.wa.gov/gic/washdat.htm King County http://www.metrokc.gov/dias/its/gis/ Puget Sound Regional Council http://www.psrc.org/
ASSOCIATIONS AMERICAN ASS. FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE http://www.aaas.org/ AMERICAN PLANNING ASSOCIATION http://www.planning.org/ ASSOCIATION OF COLLEGIATE SCHOOLS OF PLANNING http://www.uwm.edu/Org/acsp/ ASSOCIATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND RESOURCE ECONOMISTS http://www.aere.org/ ECOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA http://www.sdsc.edu/ESA/ NATIONAL CENTER FOR ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS http://www.nceas.ucsb.edu/ AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES http://www.aibs.org/
Web Resources EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency http://www.epa.gov/ National Council for Science and the Environment http://www.cnie.org/ Environmental sites on the Internet Royal Institute of Technology - Stockholm, Sweden http://www.lib.kth.se/%7Elg/envsite.htm Virtual library of ecology, biodiversity, and the environment Center for Conservation Biology Network, Rice University http://conbio.net/vl/
Search Terms • Standard search terms include • Title • Author • Abstract • Keywords • Every search engine will have different syntax • Use Boolean operators (AND, OR etc) • Some search engines have online tutorials to teach you how to use them
Referencing: BibTex vs. EndNote • BibTex is best if you are already familiar with LaTeX, as the interface is similar. • There is graphical software to help you • EndNote is best if you will be writing you papers using Word/Open Office etc • Though EndNote libraries can be turned into BibTex files
Reference management software • There is a host of software available for helping find, and keep note of your references (and perhaps even the papers themselves e.g. Papers) • Some will link to one or more bibliographic database (such as the arXiv, PubMed, U.S. Library of Congress etc) • Know what software you will be using to write in choosing your bibliographic tool
Conducting a literature review • It's the first step after selecting an idea • Limit the search to certain key words, years, research areas • Access information, including one or two good review articles Social Science Citation Index General Science Index Current Contents Extended Academic Index LEXIS-NEXIS academic universe ProQuest • Read & organize the results of your search • Critique your literature • Summarize the results
Steps in the Literature Review Process 1- Context for the search - define the problem - gather background information - identify key concepts - develop a scheme for reviewing and critically - evaluate the articles 2- Prepare for the search - created concept lists - use Boolean operators - determine where to perform search
Steps in the Literature Review Process 3- Perform the search learn conventions of the databases search databases start with most general sources 4- Summarize the results create a summary chart compare & contrast the findings
Important Information Publication Language Journal Author Setting of study Participants Program Research design Sampling method Date of publication Date of data collection Duration of data collection Source of support
Urban patterns and environmental performance:What do we know?Marina Alberti Journal of Planning Education and Research. Vol. 19(2): 151-163.
Urban Patterns Form is the degree of centralization/decentralization of the urban structure. Density is the ratio of population or jobs to the area. Grain indicates the diversity of functional land uses such as residential, commercial, industrial and institutional. Connectivity measures the interrelation and mode of circulation of people and goods across the location of fixed activities.
Environmental Performance Sources include natural resources stocks and flows. Sinks are the capacity of ecosystems to absorb pollution and waste. Ecological support systems are life support services ranging from climate regulation and nutrient recycling to the maintainance of biodiversity. Impacts on human health and well-being are the direct effects on human population through polluted air, water, food etc.