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The English Colonies 1.01: Describe how geographic diversity influenced economic, social, and political life in colonial North America. The Causes of English Settlement in America: • Religious Persecution • English Puritans and other non-Anglicans faced prejudice and legal harassment. Many fled to North America where they could worship as they wished. • Economic Changes • The enclosure movement (nobles fencing off lands for sheep) displaced thousands of tenant farmers who then migrated to America. • Rivalry With Spain • England created colonies because they wanted greater riches to compete with Spain and also naval bases from which to attack Spanish shipping.
Geographic Regions: • The British colonies were divided into three geographic regions. • New England: • Massachusetts (1620) • New Hampshire (1688) • Rhode Island (1636) • Connecticut (1636) • Middle: • New York (1626) • New Jersey (1664) • Pennsylvania (1682) • Delaware (1638) • Southern: • Maryland (1633) • Virginia (1607) • North Carolina (1653) • South Carolina (1663) • Georgia (1732)
Colonial Economy: New England Colonies: • The soil was rocky and winters were long. • fishing, whaling, and making ships Middle Colonies: • The soil and climate are suitable for agriculture. • Farming • Industries: sawmills, mines, and iron works. Southern Colonies: • The soil was rich and the climate was warm leading to a long growing season. • Plantation system relied on enslaved labor.
Types of Colonies: • Royal Colony: these colonies were governed directly by the king through an appointed royal governor. • Proprietary Colony : were founded by individuals or groups to which the king had granted ownership of the land. • Joint-Stock Colony: were established by charters (contracts) granted by the king. • These charters allowed colonies the right to govern themselves to a great extent.
Indentured Servants v. Slavery: • Indentured Servants: agreed to work for a landowner for up to seven years in exchange for their passage to North America. • This system was eventually replaced by slavery. • Middle Passage: the route taken by ships carrying slaves from Africa to North America. The trip was called the middle passage because it was the middle leg of the … • Triangular Trade Route (trade between 3 points: England, Americas, & Africa).
The Lost Colony of Roanoke • Sir Walter Raleigh sent settlers to Roanoke Island twice, once in 1585 and again in 1587. The first group returned to England after a difficult winter. The fate of the second group is unknown. • Roanoke’s governor John White travels to England for supplies, his return trip is delayed due to a war between Spain and England. • When he finally returned all the colonists had vanished including his granddaughter Virginia Dare, the first child of English parents to be born on American soil. • The only clue left about the colonists disappearance was the letters “CRO” carved on a post, possibly referring to the Croatoan Indians. Sir Walter Raleigh
Jamestown • Jamestown (1607)- first permanent English settlement in North America, founded by theVirginia Company in search of gold. • John Smith began bartering goods for food with the Powhatan Confederacy. . This trade helped the colony survive. • However, good relations would break down after settlers began to raid the food stores of the Native Americans. • The winter of 1609-1610 became known as the “starving time.” By spring, only 60 settlers were alive. • John Rolfe developed a new variety of tobacco, which colonists began growing and shipping to England finally making the colony profitable. • In 1619 colonists formed the House of Burgesses marking the beginning of self-government in the American colonies.
Maryland is Founded: • In England, Catholics were persecuted because they did not accept the monarch as head of the Church. • In 1632 King Charles I gave his friend George Calvert, Lord Baltimore, a land grant for the colony of Maryland. • Maryland became a refuge for Catholics, but also had many Protestant settlers.
Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay Colony • Pilgrims sailed to America in 1620 aboard the Mayflowersettling inPlymouth, MA. • While aboard the Mayflower colonists realized they needed a set of rules to govern the colony. They signed a written plan of government known as the Mayflower Compact-forming a direct democracy. • In 1603 John Winthrop and about 900 Puritans sailed to America. They founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The colony’s leaders did not tolerate differences in religious beliefs.
Dissent and Division: (Rhode Island, New Hampshire & Connecticut) • Roger Williams, a minister who disagreed with official Puritan views, preached that the church and government should remain separate and that land should be purchased from the Native Americans. In 1644, Williams started the colony of Rhode Island. • Later, Anne Hutchinson and her followers also moved to Rhode Island. • Other dissenters established colonies in New Hampshire and Connecticut. • In 1639, the colony of Connecticut adopted the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, the first written constitution in America.
New York & New Jersey Pennsylvania & Delaware William Penn, a Quaker, founded Pennsylvania. Quakers believed in religious toleration and opposed war. In 1682 Penn bought three counties from the Duke of York. These later became the colony of Delaware. • Charles II took New Netherland from the Dutch in 1664. Charles’s brother James, the Duke of York, renamed the colony New York. • James later granted land to two of the king’s advisers which became New Jersey. William Penn
The Carolinas & Georgia • The Carolina colony was chartered in 1663 in hopes of making money growing cash crops. Carolina was not divided into two distinct colonies until 1729. • Georgia was the last of the 13 English colonies. • James Oglethorpe planned Georgia as a refuge for debtors and a military outpost against the Spaniards in Florida.
Causes of American Revolution • Salutary Neglect: Great Britain’s policy toward the U.S. colonies from 1714-1760. • Great Britain relaxed their supervision of internal colonial affairs because of the French and Indian War. • The British win the war in 1763. They won Canada and part of the continent east of the Mississippi River. • Mercantalism: British policy toward the U.S. after 1760. • A country should sell more goods than it buys. Britain needed the colonies to produce raw materials. They also wanted the colonists to buy Britain’s finished products at a higher cost.
Proclamation of 1763: prohibited colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. • Stamp Act (1765): taxed all paper products including newspapers, pamphlets, and playing cards. • Colonists were angry about the tax, because they had no representation in Parliament. They felt they should not have to pay the tax since they had not had any part in the taxes creation and approval. • “No Taxation Without Representation!” • Declaratory Act (1766): declared that the British could tax the colonists without consulting them. • Townshend Acts (1767): taxed imported goods like glass and tea.
Boston Massacre (1770): • A group of Boston citizens taunted a British regiment, and the troops shot into the crowd killing five men and wounding six others. Crispus Attucks, a former slave was the first killed. After the killings, the British ended the Townshend Acts, but the taxes on tea remained.
Boston Tea Party: • Tea Act (1773): gave the British East India Company a monopoly on tea. American merchants protested that the lower prices charged by the British for tea would hurt their business. • Boston Tea Party (1773): members of the Sons of Liberty disguised as Indians dumped more than 300 chests of British tea into the harbor.
Intolerable or Coercive Acts (1773): • Punished the colonists for the Boston Tea Party. • closed the Boston Harbor • banned town meetings • limited colonists’ right to a trial by jury • housed British troops in private homes (quartering of soldiers)
First Continental Congress: • In September 1774, 12 colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to discuss their concerns over the Intolerable Acts. • The meeting was known as the First Continental Congress. • The delegates sent a document to King George III demanding that the rights of colonists be restored.
War Begins: Lexington & Concord • In April 1775, the first two battles of the Revolutionary War took place in Massachusetts at Lexington and Concord. • Patriot leaders had heard of the British’s plan and Paul Revere and two other companions alarmed the local militias that the British were coming.
Second Continental Congress: • In May 1775, colonial leaders held the Second Continental Congress. • In January 1776, Thomas Paine published Common Sense, a pamphlet urging independence from Britain. • Eventually Congress would agree with Paine, and would appoint a committee led by Thomas Jefferson to write the Declaration of Independence. • Jefferson was influenced by English philosopher John Locke. • Locke’s Ideas: • Social Contract: a government must have the consent of the people, or it may be overthrown. • Natural Rights: “Life, Liberty, and Property” – Jefferson changes this idea to “Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.” • The Second Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. Thomas Jefferson
The Revolutionary WarThe Opposing Sides: Colonies: British: Advantages: Well-trained, well-supplied army and navy. Wealthy nation with abundant resources. Strong central government. Disadvantages: Fighting in unfamiliar, hostile territory. Fighting far from Britain. Many troops were mercenaries, many indifferent to the cause. Half-hearted support at home. Advantages: • Fighting on home ground. • Good decisions by generals. • Fighting for rights and freedoms. • French alliances providing loans, naval support, and troop. • Time: the longer the war dragged on, the more likely the British were to give up. Disadvantages: • Untrained soldiers. • Food and ammunition shortages. • Weak and divided central government.
Patriots (Whigs): believed that the British had become tyrants and supported independence from Britain. Patriots represented a wide cross-section of society. Many came from New England and Virginia. Loyalists (Tories): Americans who supported the British during the Revolutionary War. Many were government officials or Anglican ministers. Others were prominent merchants, landowners, and backcountry farmers on the frontier. Many loyalists came from Georgia, the Carolinas, and New York. Patriots v. Loyalists:
Major Battles: • Lexington & Concord (April 18-19 1775): • “Shot heard ‘round the world.” • Minutemen (local militias) are ready for the British-have been alerted by Paul Revere and his other riders that the British are coming. • British suffer heavy losses to colonial snipers using guerilla warfare. Paul Revere’s Ride
Battle of Bunker Hill (June 17, 1775): • In the Battle of Bunker Hill (actually fought on Breed’s Hill), the British suffer heavy losses, with more than 1,100 killed or wounded, before forcing a rebel retreat. • It was important because it showed that the largely untrained colonial militia could stand up to the British army.
Trenton & Princeton (December 25, 1776): • In a surprise Christmas Day attack, Washington leads troops across the Delaware River for a successful attack on British forces at Trenton and Princeton, New Jersey. Second Battle of Saratoga (October 7-17, 1777): • Over 5,700 British surrender. • A major turning point for the American cause as Europe is encouraged to aide the revolution, including formal French recognition of American independence. Washington Crossing the Delaware
Valley Forge (December-June 1778): • Washington’s Continental army camps at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, in December and remains there until June 1778. • An estimated 2,500 soldiers out of 10,000 died due to bitter cold and food shortages.
Battle of Kings Mountain (October 7, 1780) • A frontier militia force captures a Loyalist force of 1,100 at Kings Mountain, North Carolina, forcing General Cornwallis to abandon plans for an invasion of North Carolina. • Turning point in the South. Southern farmers began organizing their own forces. General Cornwallis
The Battle of Yorktown (Sept.-Oct. 1781): • On September 28, 1781, American and French forces surrounded Yorktown, Virginia and began to bombard it. They cut off British supplies and their access to an escape by sea. On October 19, 1781, approximately 8,000 British soldiers under General Cornwallis surrendered. Treaty of Paris (September 3, 1783): • Peace treaty ending the Revolutionary War. • The British recognized the U.S. as a new nation, with the Mississippi River as its western border. Surrender at Yorktown