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GEARS Workshop Monday. 2012. Welcome. Thanks for joining us! Paperwork, paperwork, and restrooms. Breaks – 15 min morning, afternoon, 1 hr lunch Parking regs for your site Food/drink regs for your site. GEARS: Georgians Experience Astronomy Research in Schools.

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Thanks for joining us!

Paperwork, paperwork, and restrooms.

Breaks – 15 min morning, afternoon, 1 hr lunch

Parking regs for your site

Food/drink regs for your site

gears georgians experience astronomy research in schools
GEARS: Georgians Experience Astronomy Research in Schools
  • NASA funded: 3 partners in GA
  • Virtual School curriculum development
  • Teacher workshops
  • Resource Teachers – right here in front of you
  • Goal is to have 100% of GA students to be able to access curriculum
gears and you

You are now part of the GEARS network


Please answer multiple choice questions on scantron or answer sheet. Return your test to workshop facilitators and make sure you have your name on the answer sheet.


(daily schedule links from )

getting started
Getting Started

Today we’ll get started with some student understandings

What causes the seasons?

Let’s watch some of this video – and pay attention to when the students are talking

How do student misconceptions develop and what are the consequences for their future learning?

private universe
Private Universe

We will watch this video…

While you are watching this video – think about this question….

How do student misconceptions develop and what are the consequences for their future learning?

misconceptions discussion
Misconceptions - Discussion

How do we as teachers help the students overcome these biases and replace the misconceptions with proper conceptions?

What is our role as a teacher?


View the picture in the book. Where might elliptical orbit misconception come from.

seasons cause
Seasons cause


Discuss confusing language of indirect/direct

See the daily schedule for some suggested ideas about teaching seasons

See your “Universe at Your Fingertips” resource for Phases of the Moon and more

weather permitting
Weather permitting

Sun measurements (see later for the slides)

You will measure the radius of the Sun.

philosophical statements
Philosophical Statements

Parking Lot



Bloom’s Taxonomy, Rigor and Relevance, DOK


Whiteboarding, on the other hand, is an active learning process in which evaluation is ongoing and serves to guide the learning process.

the whiteboard allows students to clarify and define their understanding through verbalization. Putting concepts into words is a powerful means of checking true understanding, as students often do not even realize they do not understand something until they try to explain it.

5e s http enhancinged wgbh org research eeeee html
  • Engage:This phase of the 5 E's starts the process. An "engage" activity should do the following:
    • Make connections between past and present learning experiences
    • Anticipate activities and focus students' thinking on the learning outcomes of current activities. Students should become mentally engaged in the concept, process, or skill to be learned.
  • Explore:This phase of the 5 E's provides students with a common base of experiences. They identify and develop concepts, processes, and skills. During this phase, students actively explore their environment or manipulate materials.
  • Explain:This phase of the 5 E's helps students explain the concepts they have been exploring. They have opportunities to verbalize their conceptual understanding or to demonstrate new skills or behaviors. This phase also provides opportunities for teachers to introduce formal terms, definitions, and explanations for concepts, processes, skills, or behaviors.
  • Elaborate:This phase of the 5 E's extends students' conceptual understanding and allows them to practice skills and behaviors. Through new experiences, the learners develop deeper and broader understanding of major concepts, obtain more information about areas of interest, and refine their skills.
  • Evaluate:This phase of the 5 E's encourages learners to assess their understanding and abilities and lets teachers evaluate students' understanding of key concepts and skill development.
new bloom s
New Bloom’s

Remembering: define, duplicate, list, memorize, recall, repeat, reproduce state

Understanding: classify, describe, discuss, explain, identify, locate, recognize, report, select, translate, paraphrase

Applying: choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write.

Analyzing: appraise, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test.

Evaluating: appraise, argue, defend, judge, select, support, value, evaluate

Creating: assemble, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, write.

rigor relevance
Rigor & Relevance

depth of knowledge dok
Depth Of Knowledge (DOK)

Depth of Knowledge is the degree of depth or complexity of knowledge standards and assessments require; this criterion is met if the assessment is as demanding cognitively as the expectations standards are set for students.

dok not difficulty
DOK – not difficulty

 DOK is NOT.....   about Verbs  - Verbs are not always used appropriately.    about "difficulty" - It is not about the student or level of difficulty for the student  - it requires looking at the assessment item not student work in order to determine the level. DOK is about the item/standard - not the student.

dok relates to the standards
DOK – relates to the standards

DOK is.... about what FOLLOWS the verb. What comes after the verb is more important than the verb itself.  about the complexity of mental processing that must occur to answer a question. Remember DOK...         Descriptive, not a taxonomy         Focuses on how deeply the student has to know the content in order to respond.         Not the same as difficulty.

level 1 recall
Level 1: Recall

Recall elements and details of story structure, such as sequence of events, character, plot and setting.

Conduct basic mathematical calculations.

Label locations on a map.

Represent in words or diagrams a scientific concept or relationship.

Perform routine procedures like measuring length or using punctuation marks correctly.

Describe the features of a place or people.

level 2 skill concept
Level 2: Skill/Concept

Identify and summarize the major events in a narrative.

Use context cues to identify the meaning of unfamiliar words.

Solve routine multiple-step problems.

Describe the cause/effect of a particular event.

Identify patterns in events or behavior.

Formulate a routine problem given data and conditions.

Organize, represent and interpret data

level 3 strategic thinking
Level 3: Strategic Thinking

Support ideas with details and examples.

Use voice appropriate to the purpose and audience.

Identify research questions and design investigations for a scientific problem.

Develop a scientific model for a complex situation.

Determine the author’s purpose and describe how it affects the interpretation of a reading selection.

Apply a concept in other contexts.

level 4 extended thinking
Level 4: Extended Thinking

Conduct a project that requires specifying a problem, designing and conducting an experiment, analyzing its data, and reporting results/solutions.

Apply mathematical model to illuminate a problem or situation.

Analyze and synthesize information from multiple sources.

Describe and illustrate how common themes are found across texts from different cultures.

Design a mathematical model to inform and solve a practical or abstract situation.

astro gps

Identify the DOK for the elements in the Astro GPS.

engage light
Engage - Light

Let’s look at some light sources

light sources
Light Sources

Lab. Use diffraction gratings and (if available) spectrometers.

Classify the light sources into categories.

Justify your categories.

properties of light
Properties of Light

What can light do when it interacts with matter?

light matter
Light & Matter





Scatter (above the standards – different physics than above)

What happens when no matter between emitter and absorber.

explain light sources categories
Explain: Light Sources Categories


Absorption Line

Emission Line

What states of matter for each?

discuss states of matter
Discuss - States of Matter

Continuous from:

Emission line from :

Absorption Line from:

spectral fingerprint
Spectral fingerprint

In the Sun, the transition from level 4 to level 2 of hydrogen produces photons with a wavelength of 486.1nm. In a star twice as hot as the Sun, this transition would produce photons with

a) half that wavelength.

b) the same wavelength.

c) twice that wavelength.

d) four times that wavelength.

think pair share
Think Pair Share

As a great teaching tool

Look for that on the web as source of multiple choice questions

Also search on Clicker questions for good source


Atoms have particular associated spectral lines because

a) electrons have only certain allowed energy transitions.

b) light consists of waves.

c) light waves can show the Doppler effect.

d) photons have only certain allowed orbits.

e) speed of light in a vacuum is a constant.

break down the answer choices
Break down the answer choices

Go back and look at them one by one

engage stars
Engage: Stars

10 minutes: Similarities and differences for stars as seen in this photo.

List on whiteboards

Zoomable link – off Monday agenda:1:30pm

melting nail
Melting Nail

What are on the graphs?

What is the difference?

explore melting nail1
Explore: Melting Nail


Wavelength of the peak/crest/highest part is at shorter wavelengths for higher temperature

The peak gets higher ‘intensity’ as higher temperature

The area under curve (which is an indicator of total power…) gets bigger as higher temperature

melting nails
Melting Nails

Do stars behave like the melting nails?

explore melting nail2
Explore: Melting Nail

Generate a hypothesis in the form of If ….. Then ….

"If stars are like the nail, then I expect to see blank blank for hotter stars and blank blank for cooler stars."

explore test hypothesis
Explore: Test Hypothesis

Test your hypothesis.

Modify your hypothesis based on observations.

Draw conclusions from observations.

explain summarize blackbody properties
Explain: Summarize blackbody properties

Wavelength of the peak/crest/highest part is at shorter wavelengths for higher temperature

The peak gets higher ‘intensity’ as higher temperature

The area under curve (which is an indicator of total power…) gets bigger as higher temperature

wien s law color and temperature
Wien’s Law – Color and Temperature

Advanced kids or more time could use simulator to actually create a graph and then

Use slope of graph to find the constant.


Stars are blackbodies.

Use what you have learned so far to create a hypothesis about the colors of stars and the temperatures of those stars.

seeing the sun
Seeing the Sun

What would you see if you were an astronaut ABOVE the Earth’s atmosphere when you looked at the sun?

A) A continuous spectrum

B) An emission line spectrum

C) An absorption line spectrum

engage flux
Engage: Flux

Imagine driving at night. How do you know if a motorcycle coming towards you is close or far?

flux predict
Flux: predict

Make a prediction (and write it down): You have 2 detectors and a light bulb. If you place the 1st detector 10 cm away from light bulb, how far away do you put the second detector to get one half the detection?

explore flux simulator
Explore: Flux simulator


explain flux simulator
Explain: Flux Simulator

What are the two sets of independent & dependent variables?

What are the relevant control variables in each case.

Some questions to consider: How many data points do you need for each pairing of independent and dependent variable? Does the answer to this question depend on the situation, or is it the same in every case?

flux graph it and model it
Flux – Graph It and Model it

Use Excel to make graphs of your 2 experiments

Create a verbal model to describe the graph.

Create a mathematical model to describe the graph.

Sketch graphs and write 2 models on whiteboards

evaluate summarize the law
Evaluate: Summarize the Law

What is the relationship between power of bulb and measured flux for a given distance?

What is relationship between the distance and the measured flux for a given bulb power?

flux evaluate
Flux - Evaluate

Use your models to answer the question: You have 2 detectors and a light bulb. If you place the 1st detector 10 cm away from light bulb, how far away do you put the second detector to get one half the detection?

brightness of light
Brightness of Light
  • What is intrinsic brightness? How was it measured in the simulation?
  • Is that the same as brightness observed or measured?
apply simulation to stars
Apply simulation to stars

What might you conclude about stars from this experiment?

Create a hypothesis.

What is your control variable?


Astronomers use term luminosity to refer to intrinsic POWER of object shining light.

Total of all emitted/radiated energy every second.


What does intrinsic mean?


Flux is a way for an observer to measure brightness that is observed.

We measure the energy received each second in a certain area of our detector (square meter).

We can call this ‘fluxiness’

Normal humans often refer to this as intensity – but astronomers have a different and more complex definition of intensity. Your textbook probably calls what astronomers refer to as flux, intensity.

ticket out the door
Ticket Out The Door

What can you learn about stars from examining their light?

Reflect on standards and activities and DOK and Rigor Relevance

See the form on the webpage.

Homework: Read your textbook about stars.

pinhole camera
Pinhole camera

Sketch how it works.

(optional – inverted, upright, reversed?)

What is list of measurements needed?

Where is your sunscreen/hat?

Need tubes, rulers, teams, paper to write down answers.

Make careful measurements – need this result later. Prizes for most accurate 


D = diameter – of either Sun or

image of Sun on wax paper

d = distance – either from sun to

pinhole or image to pinhole

pinhole math
Pinhole math

From geometry – vertical angles

D = diameter – of either Sun or image of Sun on wax paper

d = distance – either from sun to pinhole or image to pinhole

Radius is half the diameter

pinhole camera2
Pinhole Camera

How do we know the actual size of the Sun?

Compute the average diameter of the Sun for the group.

Compute the % difference of your value from the group average.

Compute the % error of your value from the ‘known’ value.

% error

Used when know actual value and you are doing a verification lab.

Provides a measure of the accuracy of your results (hint – see characteristics of science)

% difference

Used when you don’t know the answer. Provides a measure of the precision of your results.

Helps identify outliers.