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Persia Attacks Greece. Chapter 4 Section 3 8 th Grade World History Mrs. Thompson. Persian Empire. Main Idea. The Persian Empire united a wide area under a single government. The people of Persia were nomads warriors and lived in what is today southwestern Iran.
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Persia Attacks Greece Chapter 4 Section 3 8th Grade World History Mrs. Thompson
Persian Empire Main Idea The Persian Empire united a wide area under a single government. The people of Persia were nomads warriors and lived in what is today southwestern Iran.
The Rise of the Persian Empire Cyrus the Great: He allowed different cultures within his empire to keep their own institutions. He captured Babylon in 539 B.C. as well as Mesopotamia, Asia Minor,Syria, Canaan, Phoenician cities to unite Persians under powerful kingdom.
Conquered Egypt, western India, and Thrace (region of northeast Greece). Leaders After Cyrus: Built roads to connect the empire. The Royal Road stretched from Asia Minor to Susa (the first capital).
Darius the Great • He extended the Persian Empire to the Indus River in northern India. (2 mil. s.q. mi.) • Built a canal in Egypt. • Built Persepolis.
Is about … Darius came to the throne in 521 B.C. Darius paid people to be in the army (unlike the Greeks) A group of 10,000 soldiers called the Immortals protected the king. Darius divided the empire into 20 provinces call satrapies. Each was ruled by a satrap, meaning “protector of the kingdom.” Satraps acted as judge, police, and recruiter for army.
Darius the Great(526 – 485 B. C.) • Established a tax-collecting system. • Established a complex postal system. • Created a network of spies called “the King’s eyes and ears.”
Persian religion was Zoroastrianism “Good Thoughts, Good Deed, Good Words” The founder was Zoroaster who was born 660 B.C. Zoroaster taught free will of humans and recognized evil force in the world.
Extent of Zoroastrianism It was a monotheistic religion that taught of one supreme creator.
Dualistic Battle of Good vs. Evil Ahura Mazda“Holy Spirit” Ahriman“Destructive Spirit” “Tree of Life”
Zend-Avesta(The “Book of Law”) The “Sacred Fire” the force to fight evil.
The Persian Wars Main Idea Both Sparta and Athens played roles in defeating the Persians. By the mid-500s B.C. Persia controlled Greek cities in Asia Minor.
Persian Wars: 499 BCE – 480 BC In 499 B.C., the Athenians helped Greeks in Asia Minor to rebel but failed.
Battle of Marathon In 490 B.C. 20,000 Persians landed on plain of Marathon. The Athenians only had 10,000 soldiers. Battle of Marathon Persians decided to go south and attack Athens directly, so he ordered the cavalry back. Greeks charged the field and easily defeated the Persian soldiers standing in the water. Pheidippides was sent to Athens with the news and ran 25 miles from Marathon. When he got there, he collapsed and with his final breath announced “Victory.” 2. 1. 3. 4.
Organizing Time! Xerxes took Persian throne in 486 B.C. after Darius. He launched attack on Greece with 180,000 soldiers in 480 B.C.
http://www.history.com/videos/battle-of-thermopylae-unfolds#kill-zone-battle-of-thermopylaehttp://www.history.com/videos/battle-of-thermopylae-unfolds#kill-zone-battle-of-thermopylae Sparta sent most solders with King Leonidas as commander. Atraitortold Persians of a mountain path around Greeks to mount a rear attack. They cut off food and supplies to the Persian Army. Athens supplied the navy with Athenian general Themistocles drawing up the plan of attack. Leonidassent most troops to safety, but he and a few hundred others stayed behind. The Greeks decided best place to stall the Persians was at Thermopylae They fought to the death in order to giveAthensenough time to assemble200ships. The Greeks United Thermopylae was a narrow pass through the mountains that was easy to defend.
Greek fleet attacked Persians in the strait of Salamis http://www.classzone.com/cz/books/ms_wh_survey/resources/html/animations/wh07_persian_wars.html A strait is a narrow strip of water between two pieces of land. The smaller and faster Greek ships easily destroyed the Persian fleet. Persian army marched on and burned Athens after Greeks had fled.
REVENGE! In 479 B.C. The Greeks assembled largest army ever in Greece with better training and armor. The Greeks crushed the Persians at Platea, northwest of Athens. RESULT: It was a turning point for the Greeks because the Persians retreated and city-states were saved.
What Caused the Persian Empire to Fall? The Greeks helped weaken the empire which already had internal problems. Started with … Then this happened … After Darius and Xerxes, rulers increased taxes to build luxurious palaces. And that led to this … High taxes caused rebellion. So this happened … The results were … By 300 B.C., the last Persian king was dead and Alexander the Great ruled over all his lands. The royal family fought over who would be king. Six of nine rulers after Darius were murdered.