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    12. Perhaps the most disturbing finding in the table is that low numbers of impaired drivers on the road are not accompanied by proportionately low numbers of impaired drivers in fatal crashes.

    13. Secondary References Secondary references interpret the work of other authors and researchers. A comparison of secondary sources with one another and to primary sources allows a more balanced viewpoint. Authors should separate fact from opinion. A Writer's Resource: Finding and Using References. Gilbride, JA. Topics in Clinical Nutrition: Volume 19(4), October/November/December 2004, p 326337

    14. Secondary References Secondary references interpret the work of other authors and researchers. A comparison of secondary sources with one another and to primary sources allows a more balanced viewpoint. Authors should separate fact from opinion. A Writer's Resource: Finding and Using References. Gilbride, JA. Topics in Clinical Nutrition: Volume 19(4), October/November/December 2004, p 326337

    15. Recent fatality research in Scandinavia has shown to an astonished public that the role of alcohol in fatal crashes in the northern countries is only marginally less than in countries with much higher alcohol consumption and far more drinking drivers on the road.

    16. A Dictionary of Useful Research Phrases "It has long been known..."

    17. A Dictionary of Useful Research Phrases "It has long been known..." I didn't look up the original references.

    18. A Dictionary of Useful Research Phrases "It has long been known..." I didn't look up the original references. "It is believed that..."

    19. A Dictionary of Useful Research Phrases "It has long been known..." I didn't look up the original references. "It is believed that..." I think.

    36. Study Purpose % smokers among pregnant women % smokers among non-pregnant women compare to 50%

    38. R1 ? C1 . . . R2 ? C2

    40. Structured Discussion BMJ

    41. Other resources to help you write better papers Observational studies STROBE Clinical trials CONSORT Diagnostic studies STARD Meta-analysis QUOROM

    44. The true number of examinations for oral cancer is probably far below the national objective of 40%. An unknown number of clinicians may not conduct oral examinations routinely or when patient behaviors indicate one.

    45. The true number of examinations for oral cancer is probably far below the national objective of 40%. An unknown number of clinicians may not conduct oral examinations routinely or when patient behaviors indicate one.

    48. The true number of examinations for oral cancer is probably far below the national objective of 40%. An unknown number of clinicians may not conduct oral examinations routinely or when patient behaviors indicate one.

    54. Tables/Figures

    55. Tables/Figures Use tables to highlight individual values. Use figures to highlight trends/relationships. Check your math. Provide consistent row or column summation. Keep lines to a minimum; avoid vertical lines. Use footnotes to clarify points of potential ambiguity. Check heading, labels of rows/columns/axes, and footnotes.

    56. Tables/Figures Use tables to highlight individual values. Use figures to highlight trends/relationships. Check your math. Provide consistent row or column summation. Keep lines to a minimum; avoid vertical lines. Use footnotes to clarify points of potential ambiguity. Check heading, labels of rows/columns/axes, and footnotes.

    59. Tables/Figures Use tables to highlight individual values. Use figures to highlight trends/relationships. Check your math. Provide consistent row or column summation. Keep lines to a minimum; avoid vertical lines. Use footnotes to clarify points of potential ambiguity. Check heading, labels of rows/columns/axes, and footnotes.

    60. Trends in Postpartum Diabetes Screening and Subsequent Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Regulation among Women with Histories of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus A large number (n= 600) of women with gestational diabetes underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Of these women, 4 (25%) were diagnosed by fasting plasma glucose alone. Of the remaining 12 women, 8 (50%) had impaired fasting glucose and 4 (25%) had a normal fasting glucose.

    67. Tables/Figures Use tables to highlight individual values. Use figures to highlight trends/relationships. Check your math. Provide consistent row or column summation. Keep lines to a minimum; avoid vertical lines. Use footnotes to clarify points of potential ambiguity. Check heading, labels of rows/columns/axes, and footnotes.

    70. Tables/Figures Use tables to highlight individual values. Use figures to highlight trends/relationships. Check your math. Provide consistent row or column summation. Keep lines to a minimum; avoid vertical lines. Use footnotes to clarify points of potential ambiguity. Check heading, labels of rows/columns/axes, and footnotes.

    71. Table 1 Percent missing individual data elements, overall and for single and multiple race groups

    73. Tables/Figures Use tables to highlight individual values. Use figures to highlight trends/relationships. Check your math. Provide consistent row or column summation. Keep lines to a minimum; avoid vertical lines. Use footnotes to clarify points of potential ambiguity. Check heading, labels of rows/columns/axes, and footnotes.

    76. Tables/Figures Use tables to highlight individual values. Use figures to highlight trends/relationships. Check your math. Provide consistent row or column summation. Keep lines to a minimum; avoid vertical lines. Use footnotes to clarify points of potential ambiguity. Check heading, labels of rows/columns/axes, and footnotes.

    77. Table 2. Exposure groups among adults by gender.

    82. Text Summarize/emphasize highlights. Be brief: a picture (table/figure) is worth a thousand words. Fill in gaps. Make sure text is consistent with tables/figures.

    83. Text Summarize/emphasize highlights. Be brief: a picture (table/figure) is worth a thousand words. Fill in gaps. Make sure text is consistent with tables/figures.

    84. Text Summarize/emphasize highlights. Be brief: a picture (table/figure) is worth a thousand words. Fill in gaps. Make sure text is consistent with tables/figures.

    87. During 1980 to 1989, the smoking initiation rate increased for adolescents and decreased for young adults, resulting in a large disparity in initiation rates between the two groups. In 1982, smoking initiation rates among young adults and adolescents were similar, however between 1982-84, significant changes began occurring, resulting in increased smoking initiation rates among adolescents and decreased rates with young adults. Beginning in 1980, over the next 5 years smoking initiation rates among adolescents and young adults decreased slightly and then over the subsequent 5 years, rates for adolescents increased while rates for young adults declined.

    92. Text Summarize/emphasize highlights. Be brief: a picture (table/figure) is worth a thousand words. Fill in gaps. Make sure text is consistent with tables/figures.

    93. Text Summarize/emphasize highlights. Be brief: a picture (table/figure) is worth a thousand words. Fill in gaps. Make sure text is consistent with tables/figures.

    98. Text Summarize/emphasize highlights. Be brief: a picture (table/figure) is worth a thousand words. Fill in gaps. Make sure text is consistent with tables/figures. Remember that readers arent mind readers.

    99. Adolescents (aged 13-19 years) and young adults (aged 20-29 years) accounted for 25% and 27% of heterosexual-contact cases reported in 1992 and 1993, respectively.

    103. Adolescents (aged 13-19 years) and young adults (aged 20-29 years) accounted for 25% and 27% of heterosexual-contact cases reported in 1992 and 1993, respectively. Persons aged 13-29 years accounted for 25% and 27% of heterosexual-contact cases reported in 1992 and 1993, respectively.

    105. Persons aged 13-29 years accounted for 25% and 27% of heterosexual-contact cases reported in 1992 and 1993, respectively. Respectively see Strunk and White, p57 Can we revise this sentence without using respectively?

    109. Logical Sequence in parallel with methods background data ? descriptive ? bivariate ? multivariable

    111. Results (Excerpt: Neonatal Intensive Care Nurse Stressors: An American Study) The highest ratings for selected stressor items on a five-point scale (0-4) were floating out of the unit (3.38; SD=1.02; n=53), unnecessary prolongation of life (3.10; SD=1.27; n=51), emergencies/arrests (3.07; SD=1.03; n=57), and inadequate staffing (3.04; SD=1.04; n=56).

    114. NICU nurses identified the following situations as the most stressful: floating out of the unit, unnecessary prolongation of life, emergencies/arrests, and inadequate staffing (Table).

    116. Risk Factors for Invasive Pneumococcal Disease among Navajo Adults METHODS Setting and Case Ascertainment Participants Data Collection Definitions of Study Variables Statistical Analysis Ethical Considerations RESULTS Characteristics of study subjects Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis

    118. Soft Drink Consumption and Risk of Developing Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and the Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged Adults in the Community Methods Results Study Sample Measurement of Covariates Assessment of Soft Drink Consumption and Dietary Intake of Other Foods Definition and Components of the Metabolic Syndrome Statistical Analyses Soft Drink Consumption and Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome Soft Drink Consumption and Incidence of the Metabolic Syndrome Incidence of the Metabolic Syndrome Incidence of Individual Components of Incidence of Individual Components of the Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome

    119. RESULTS Impact of the Standard Weight Loss Intervention Maintenance Intervention Effects Weight Outcomes BSM Psychological Targets SFM Psychological Targets Child Social Problems as a Moderator of Weight Outcome

    120. RESULTS Impact of the Standard Weight Loss Intervention Maintenance Intervention Effects Weight Outcomes Interventions vs. Controls BSM vs SFM ITT Analyses BSM Psychological Targets SFM Psychological Targets Child Social Problems as a Moderator of Weight Outcome

    122. (often requires just three paragraphs + three tables/figures)

    123. When the sins of the Methods section

    124. When the sins of the Methods section return to haunt

    125. When the sins of the Methods section return to haunt the Results section

    127. Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies: A Randomized Controlled Trial American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2007:32(1):1-10 Do you think this title provides a brief, informative summary of the article? Do you think the study intervention resulted in a decreased number/rate of alcohol-exposed pregnancies?

    129. Emphasize what is new and useful.

    130. Editing SUBSTANCE Mistakes Ambiguity Missing key info Extraneous/misleading info Empty statements

    131. Is the conclusion supported by the study results? Is it clear that the study provides new/useful information?

    132. The Abstract Purpose Methods Results Conclusions RELIABILITY VALIDITY RELIABILITY RELIABILITY FLEXIBILITY UTILITY

    133. The Abstract Design Brief Motivational Intervention to reduce risk of AEP

    134. The Abstract Design Intervention Brief Motivational Intervention to reduce risk of AEP Info + Br-Mot-Int vs Info only

    135. The Abstract Design Intervention Results Brief Motivational Intervention to reduce risk of AEP Info + Br-Mot-Int vs Info only Info + Br-Mot-Int > Info only

    136. The Abstract Design Intervention Results Conclusions Brief Motivational Intervention to reduce risk of AEP Info + Br-Mot-Int vs Info only Info + Br-Mot-Int > Info only Brief Motivational Intervention

    137. The Abstract Design Intervention Results Conclusions Brief Motivational Intervention to reduce risk of AEP Info + Br-Mot-Int vs Info only Info + Br-Mot-Int > Info only Brief Motivational Intervention

    138. ABSTRACT Reducing the risk of AEP TITLE Preventing AEP

    139. ABSTRACT Reducing the risk of AEP TITLE Preventing AEP

    142. Elements of the Introduction GAP GB Key BACKGROUND to the gap. GU Why filling the gap will be USEFUL. GL Key LIMITATION(S) of previous studies responsible for the gap.

    143. Elements of the Introduction GAP GB Key BACKGROUND to the gap. GU Why filling the gap will be USEFUL. GL Key LIMITATION(S) of previous studies responsible for the gap. APPROACH AB BACKGROUND to the approach (not always necessary) AN What is NEW about the approach taken in the current study. AL How does this new approach address the LIMITATIONS of previous studies.

    144. Exercise Briefly describe what is new about this study.

    146. Participants Intervention Study Design Outcome Measures Baseline Measures Sample Size Statistical Analysis

    147. Participants Inclusion criteria were: (1) 1844 years old; (2) no condition causing infertility (tubal ligation, hysterectomy, menopause, or other reason); (3) not pregnant or planning to become pregnant in the next 9 months; (4) had vaginal intercourse during the previous 3 months (or 3 months before going to jail or residential treatment) with a fertile man (not surgically sterile) without using effective contraception (defined in Outcome Measures); (5) engaged in risky drinking (defined in Outcome Measures) . . .

    148. Participants Women in jail What is their access to alcohol/sexual activity?

    149.

    150. No significant differences were found in the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the intervention and control groups at baseline (Table 2).

    151. Overall, study participants had a mean age of 30 years, were predominately African-American (48%), had never been married (51%), and had annual incomes of <$20,000 (55%). Fifty-six percent met the criteria for alcohol dependence on a DSM-IV checklist. Illicit drug use (>90%) and tobacco smoking (>70%) were highly prevalent in the population. Approximately 30% consumed on average eight drinks per occasion and 36 drinks per week. About one-third reported no contraception use, with the remainder reporting using contraception inconsistently or ineffectively. More than 98% of the women in the intervention group received at least one session, and 63% received all four sessions. On average, they attended 3.2 counseling sessions, and approximately 70% attended a contraception consultation visit. Overall, 71% of participants completed the 9-month follow-up interview. The longitudinal analysis included 665 participants who completed the 3-month follow-up interview, 604 who completed the 6-month follow-up interview, and 593 who completed the 9-month follow-up interview, with approximately equal numbers in treatment and control groups at each of the phases.

    156. The average number of binge-drinking episodes in the intervention group was reduced from 30.1 at baseline to 7.1 episodes at 9 months follow-up. In comparison, women in the control group changed from 29.1 binge episodes at baseline to 9.8 at 9 months follow-up. The median number of drinks per week at baseline was reduced from 36 drinks to 2.3 drinks at 9 months for intervention women, compared to 38 drinks at baseline and 3.1 drinks at the 9-month follow-up for the control group. Women in the intervention group at the 9-month follow-up were more likely to reduce alcohol consumption to below risk levels at an OR of 1.5 (95% CI 1.12.2), and were also more likely to use effective contraception at an OR of 2.4 (95% CI 1.73.4).

    161. Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    162. Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    164. II THE PUBLICATION PROCESS

    166. Conduct literature review

    174. Conduct literature review

    175. Start the paper even before I do the study??

    177. Start the paper Draft the Introduction perhaps borrow from a study protocol or grant proposal that you already wrote Draft dummy table shells and figure axes for Results.

    178. Conduct study/analyze data Now its time to write the first draft, right? Maybe not.

    179. Organize/summarize results succinctly Fill in dummy tables and figures with real data. Draft additional tables and figures if needed look at published articles for potential templates. Summarize each table/figure in a single sentence.

    180. Get early, frequent feedback

    181. Get early, frequent feedback Share your tables/figures and single-sentence summaries to coauthors/colleagues. Ask if they are clear/concise/compelling.

    184. Get early, frequent feedback Show your tables/figures and single-sentence summaries to coauthors/colleagues. Ask if they are clear/concise/compelling. Give presentations to colleagues at work, at conferences. Try to formulate a concise key message.

    185. Get early, frequent feedback Show your tables/figures and single-sentence summaries to coauthors/colleagues. Ask if they are clear/concise/compelling. Give presentations to colleagues at work, at conferences Try to formulate a concise key message. Get feedback.

    186. Please listen carefully to what I am about to say. . . Dont wait for a complete draft to begin getting feedback.

    188. Formulate your key message Keep it simple; try to boil down to a single sentence. Your message must contain something new and useful. Make sure your results support your key message.

    189. Formulate your key message Keep it simple; try to boil down to a single sentence. Your message must contain something new and useful. Make sure your results support your key message. The message may change as you develop the paper.

    190. Apply the new/useful test

    191. BMJ Rejection Checklist Why did we reject your paper? on balance, your paper is not sufficiently interesting for general readers (relative to other papers) the message is not new enough the topic is interesting but the paper does not cover it in enough depth the paper adds a small amount of new information but not enough to warrant space in the BMJ the message is not useful enough in practice

    192. BMJ Rejection Checklist Why did we reject your paper? on balance, your paper is not sufficiently interesting for general readers (relative to other papers) the message is not new enough the topic is interesting but the paper does not cover it in enough depth the paper adds a small amount of new information but not enough to warrant space in the BMJ the message is not useful enough in practice

    193. What/Who is a general reader?

    194. BMJ Mission Statement to lead the debate on health, and to engage, inform, and stimulate doctors, researchers and other health professionals in ways that will improve outcomes for patients

    195. BMJ Mission Statement to lead the debate on health, and to engage, inform, and stimulate doctors, researchers and other health professionals in ways that will improve outcomes for patients

    196. Choose your target audience

    197. Choose your target journal

    198. Choose your target journal Criteria A journal that matches your target audience How strong is your article?

    199. Addiction Journals AIDS Journals Allergy Medicine/Allergology Journals Allied Health Anatomy Journals Anesthesiology Journals Arthritis Journals Biochemistry Journals Bioengineering & Biomechanics Journals Biotechnology Journals Cardiology Journals Chiropractic Journals Complementary & Alternative Medicine Journals Critical Care Journals Dentistry Journals Dermatology Journals Developmental Disabilities Journals Diabetes Journals Education, Medical Journals Embryology Journals Emergency Medicine Journals Endocrinology Journals ENT/Otolaryngology Journals Environmental Medicine Journals Epidemiology Journals Evidence Based Medicine Journals Family Medicine Journals Forensic Science Journals Gastroenterology Journals General Medicine Journals Genetics & Genomics Journals Geriatrics Journals Gerontology Journals Gynecology Journals Health & Wellness Journals Healthcare Management Journals Hematology Journals Hepatology Journals Hospital Management Journals Imaging Journals Immunology Journals Infectious Disease Journals Infertility Journals Intensive Care Journals Interdisciplinary Medical Journals Internal Medicine Journals Laboratory Science Journals Managed Care Journals Medical Assessment Journals Medical Computing Journals Medical Devices and Diagnostics Journals Medical Economics Journals Medical Education Journals Medical Ethics Journals Medical Informatics Journals Medical Law Journals Medical Physics Journals Medical Policy Journals Medical Practice Journals Medical Statistics Journals Medical Technology Journals Mental Health Journals Metabolism Journals Microbiology Journals Molecular Medicine Journals Mycology Journals Neonatology Journals Nephrology Journals Neurology Journals Neuroscience Journals Nuclear Medicine Journals Nursing Journals Nutrition Journals Obstetrics Journals Occupational Medicine Journals Oncology Journals Ophthalmology Journals Oral Medicine Journals Orthodontics Journals Orthopaedic Journals Orthotics Journals Osteopathic Medicine Journals Otolaryngology Journals Pain Management Parasitology Journals Pathology Journals Pediatrics Journals Pharmacology Journals Physical & Occupational Therapy Journals Physical Medicine Journals Physiology Journals Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery Podiatry Journals Preventive Medicine Journal Primary Care Journals Prosthetics Journals Protozoology Journals Psychiatry Journals Psychology Journals Public Health Journals Pulmonary/Pulmonology Journals Radiology Journals Rehabilitation Journals Reproductive Medicine Journals Respiratory Medicine Journals Rheumatology Journals Sexuality Journals Social Work Journals Sports Medicine Journal Stomatology Journals Substance Abuse Journals Surgery Journals Teratology Journals Toxicology Journals Transplantation Journals Travel Medicine Journals Tropical Medicine Journals Urology Journals Vascular Medicine Journals Veterinary Journals Virology Journals Women's Health Journals

    200. Instructions for authors can help to confirm whether your topic is relevant to the journals mission e.g. Is AJPH interested in global health?

    201. The foremost mission of the American Journal of Public Health is to promote public health research, policy, practice, and education. We aim to embrace all of public health, from global policies to the local needs of public health practitioners. Contributions of original unpublished research, social science analyses, scholarly essays, critical commentaries, departments, and letters to the editor are welcome.

    202. The foremost mission of the American Journal of Public Health is to promote public health research, policy, practice, and education. We aim to embrace all of public health, from global policies to the local needs of public health practitioners. Contributions of original unpublished research, social science analyses, scholarly essays, critical commentaries, departments, and letters to the editor are welcome.

    203. Instructions for authors And now for the details . . .

    208. Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease by Age and Years Since Menopause JAMA.2007;297:1465-1477 (Vol. 297 No. 13, April 4, 2007)

    210. Submission Checklist Cover letter with conflict of interest disclosure Justification for more than 6 authors Explanation of authors' contributions Abstract (correct format and word limit) Text (manuscript file in Word format) References (accuracy, style, and numbering) Acknowledgments (funding sources, contributors who didn't fulfill authorship requirements) Human Participant Protection (IRB approval, consent) Tables (numbered, with title and footnotes) Figures (numbered, black-and-white, EPS, WMF, PPT, or PDF) Related supplementary material, including images (TIFF, PSD, EPS, WMF, PDF, or JPEG of more than 300 dpi, 4" x 6") from: http://www.ajph.org/misc/ifora.shtml (March 7, 2008)

    211. Draft (and debug) an abstract

    212. Draft (and debug) an abstract Purpose Methods Results Conclusions RELIABILITY VALIDITY RELIABILITY RELIABILITY FLEXIBILITY UTILITY

    213. Write the first draft Finally!

    214. Write the first draft Write for your target audience (use appropriate terminology/jargon). Consider using an outline. Dont sweat the grammar, syntax or details (only you need to understand the first draft).

    215. When the Journal Responds Acknowledgment of receipt Internal review External review Comments from editors/referees Responding to the comments Writing the cover letter When to contact the editor

    216. When the Journal Responds Acknowledgment of receipt Internal review External review Comments from editors/referees Responding to the comments Writing the cover letter When to contact the editor

    219. When the Journal Responds Acknowledgment of receipt Internal review External review Comments from editors/referees Responding to the comments Writing the cover letter When to contact the editor

    220. American Journal of Public Health Production Information Please help conserve precious Journal resources by consulting this and our other informational pages before directly contacting production staff with questions ajph.production@apha.org

    224. The Secret of Success

    225. The Secret of Success

    226. The Secret of Success Conduct literature review Start the paper Conduct study/analyze data Organize/?summarize results succinctly Get early, frequent feedback (in "chunks") Formulate your key message Apply the "new/useful" test Choose your target audience Choose your target journal Read journal instructions for authors Draft (and debug) an abstract Write the first draft

    227. The Secret of Success Conduct literature review Start the paper Conduct study/analyze data Organize/summarize results succinctly Get early, frequent feedback (in "chunks") Formulate your key message Apply the "new/useful" test Choose your target audience Choose your target journal Read journal instructions for authors Draft (and debug) an abstract Write the first draft

    228. The Secret of Success Conduct literature review Start the paper Conduct study/analyze data Organize/summarize results succinctly Get early, frequent feedback (in "chunks") Formulate your key message Apply the "new/useful" test Choose your target audience Choose your target journal Read journal instructions for authors Draft (and debug) an abstract Write the first draft