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Concluding Comments For the Course. Cosmology Fascinating Past Highly accomplished present (for example, the material covered in this course). Really exciting future. Time. The History of the Universe. Today. Anti-Gravity?*!. Galaxy Formation . Last Scattering.

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slide1

Concluding Comments For the Course

  • Cosmology
  • Fascinating Past
  • Highly accomplished present (for example, the material covered in this course).
  • Really exciting future
slide2

Time

The History of the Universe

Today

Anti-Gravity?*!

Galaxy Formation

Last Scattering

Nuclear & High Energy Physics

Inflation?

Extra Dimensions?

High Energy & Temp

slide3

Concluding Comments For the Course

  • Cosmology
  • Fascinating Past
  • Highly accomplished present (for example, the material covered in this course).
  • Really exciting future
slide5

Concluding Comments For the Course

  • Cosmology
  • Fascinating Past
  • Highly accomplished present (for example, the material covered in this course).
  • Really exciting future
slide6

Present: Deep understanding of our universe comes from

1) Application of known laws of physics

Atomic energy levels

Emission

Absorption

slide7

Present: Deep understanding of our universe comes from

1) Application of known laws of physics

slide18

Present: Deep understanding of our universe comes from

3) Putting Data and physics together to get the big picture  Big Bang Theory

slide19

What we know about the big picture

1) On large scales the matter in the Universe is spread out very smoothly (“Homogeneous”)

Mean density:

2) The Universe is expanding

Hubble law:

slide20

The homogeneity of the Universe

Galaxy

Isotropy of the microwave background (from the “edge of the observable universe”) to one part in 100,000

slide21

The homogeneity of the universe

We are here

Radial Direction

Galaxy surveys

slide22

The homogeneity of the universe

We are here

Radial Direction

From 1986

Galaxy surveys

slide24

Time

The History of the Universe

Today

Anti-Gravity?*!

Galaxy Formation

Last Scattering

Nuclear & HEP

Inflation?

Extra Dimensions?

High Energy & Temp

slide25

Present: Deep understanding of our universe comes from

4) Exploring and observing consequences of the Big Bang such as

CMB: The edge of the observable universe

slide26

The Edge of the Observable Universe:

As we look back in space we look back in time. We see:

Light traveling from far away =from distant past

Here & Now

Long ago (about 14 Billion years) the Universe was so hot and dense it was opaque: The edge of the observable universe

slide27

Properties of the Edge of the Observable Universe:

Similar to surface of Sun at time of emission

  • Today:
  • Only 2.726K above absolute Zero
  • “Microwave Radiation” (The “Cosmic Microwave Background”: CMB)
  • 1,000,000 times weaker than ambient radiation in a pitch dark room.

Here & Now

slide28

Properties of the Edge of the Observable Universe:

Similar to surface of Sun at time of emission

Cools off due to cosmic expansion

Same thing happens with stars “Oblers’ paradox” (see section 23.4)

  • Today:
  • Only 2.726K above absolute Zero
  • “Microwave Radiation” (The “Cosmic Microwave Background”: CMB)
  • 1,000,000 times weaker than ambient radiation in a pitch dark room.

Here & Now

slide30

Time

The History of the Universe

New Image of the “Last Scattering Surface” from

NASA’s WMAP satellite released Feb 11 2003

High Energy & Temp

slide31

Maps of the microwave sky (the “edge of the observable universe”

1993

Real data

Updated after WMAP announcement, Feb 2003

Real data !

2009

Simulated data

slide33

Note: we are really on the inside looking out

WMAP map of the “edge of the observable universe” plotted as a sphere

slide34

Present: Deep understanding of our universe comes from

4) Exploring and observing consequences of the Big Bang such as

Formation of Nuclei

slide35

Time

The History of the Universe

Today

Anti-Gravity?*!

Galaxy Formation

Last Scattering

Nuclear & High Energy Physics

Inflation?

Extra Dimensions?

High Energy & Temp

slide36

Present: Deep understanding of our universe comes from

5) New ideas such as cosmic inflation that seem to explain the start of the Big Bang and fit the data nicely

slide37

WMAP

  • Characteristic oscillations in the CMB power

Inflation

Temperature Power 

“Active” models

Adapted from

Bennett et al Feb 11 ‘03

 Angular scale

I.1 Successes

slide38

The future is exciting because of

  • Deep Mysteries
  • Dark Matter
  • Dark Energy
slide39

Cosmic acceleration (newest data)

Using supernovae (exploding stars) as cosmic “mileposts”, acceleration of the Universe has been detected.

Here for inflation

Preferred by modern data

 Amount of “antigravity” matter

“Gravitating” non accelerating matter

Supernova

 Amount of gravitating matter

slide40

Here for inflation

Preferred by modern data

 Amount of “antigravity” matter

“Gravitating” non accelerating matter

Supernova

 Amount of gravitating matter

  • Accelerating “Dark Energy” is what makes U=1 (required to give consistency with inflation)
  • Acceleration or (required for inflation) is possible (+)
  • Dark Energy *very* poorly understood (-/+)
slide41

95% of the cosmic matter/energy is a mystery. It has never been observed even in our best laboratories

Ordinary Matter (observed in labs)

5%

Dark Matter 25%

Dark Energy (accelerating)

70%

slide42

The future is exciting because

2) Fantastic new data sets will enable us to explore these mysteries (and hopefully resolve some of them)

slide43

The future of cosmological data

  • The James Webb (Next Generation) Space Telescope
slide44

The SNAP Satellite

Here for inflation

Preferred by modern data

 Amount of “antigravity” matter

Proposed new experiment

“Ordinary” non accelerating matter

Supernova

 Amount of ordinary matter

slide45

The future of cosmological data

  • The LSST (Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope) NB: the director of LSST is Prof Tony Tyson of UCD
slide46

The future of cosmological theory

  • The new data will allow us to resolve hotly contested issues
  • Expect progress on:
      • Can we explain/understand the beginning of the universe?
      • What is accelerating the universe?
      • What caused the galaxies to form?
      • What is the fundamental nature of matter and gravity?
slide47

For the future:

  • -I hope this course has made you better able to understand new results as they are reported in the press.
  • Feel free to come around to my office hours at any time in the future with questions.
  • Perhaps some of you would like to make a career in cosmology research (feel free to see me & discuss that)