chapter 5 photosynthesis and cellular respiration l.
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Chapter 5 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 5 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration. Section 5-1. Directly/indirectly, almost all energy in LTs needed for metabolism comes from the sun . Section 5-1. Building Molecules that Store Energy: Photosynthesis : process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

Section 5-1

  • Directly/indirectly, almost all energy in LTs needed for metabolism comes from the sun.
slide3

Section 5-1

  • Building Molecules that Store Energy:
  • Photosynthesis: process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy.
  • Autotrophs:
  • Organisms that use energy from sunlight or from chemical bonds in inorganic substances to make organic compounds; plants, bacteria
slide4

Section 5-1

  • Heterotrophs:
  • Organisms that must get energy from food instead of from sunlight/inorganic substances
  • Cellular respiration:
  • Metabolic process in which consumed food energy is converted to ATP energy

Most fungi

Most bacteria

Most protozoa

All animals

slide5

Section 5-1

  • Transfer of Energy to ATP:
  • When cells break down food molecules, some energy is released as heat. Most remaining energy is stored in ATP
  • Like money, ATP is a portable form of energy “currency” in cells and is delivered wherever it is needed in the cell

ATP

ATP

slide6

Section 5-1

  • ATP (adenosine triphosphate):
  • nucleotide w/ 2 extra energy-storing phosphate groups
  • Energy is released when bonds holding phosphate groups together are broken
  • Removal of phosphate group from ATP produces adenosine diphosphate, ADP
slide7

Section 5-2

  • Stages of Photosynthesis:
  • Stage 1 Energy captured from sunlight
  • Stage 2 Light energy converted to ATP and energy carrier NADPH
  • Stage 3 Using CO2 and energy stored in ATP and NADPH powers the formation of organic compounds
  • 6CO2 +6H2O C6H12O6 +6O2
slide8

Section 5-2

  • Stage 1: Capture Light Energy/O2 released
  • Pigments:
  • Contain light-absorbing substances
  • Chlorophyll:
  • Main pigment involved in photosynthesis, absorbs mostly blue/red light, reflects green/yellow light
  • Plants contain 2 types of chlorophyll, chlorophylla and b
  • more…
slide9

Section 5-2

  • Carotenoids:
  • Pigments that produce yellow/orange fall leaf colors, fruits, vegetables, flowers
  • Carotenoids absorb different wavelengths from chlorophyll, so having both pigments enables plants to absorb more light energy during photosynthesis
    • more…
slide10

Section 5-2

  • Stage 1: Capture Light Energy/O2 released
  • Thylakoids:
  • Clusters of pigments embedded in mem of disk-shaped structures
  • Light strikes thylakoid, energy is transferred to e- in chlorophyll
  • Causes e- to jump to higher energy level
  • e- are replaced by splitting water and O2 is released
slide11

Section 5-2

  • Stage 2: Convert Light Energy to ATP/NADPH
  • Excited e- leave chlorophyll to make ATP/NADPH that temporarily store energy
  • 1st excited e- jumps to nearby molecule in thylakoid membrane; e- is passed through series of molecules along thylakoid membrane, electron transport chain (ETC) and ATP/NADPH are made
slide12

Section 5-2

  • Stage 3: Store Energy in Organic Compounds
  • Carbon dioxide fixation:
  • C atoms from atmospheric CO2 are used to store chemical energy in organic compounds
  • Calvin cycle:
  • series of enzyme-assisted rxn produces organic compounds
slide13

Section 5-2

  • Factors that Affect Photosynthesis:
  • Photosynthesis ↑ as light intensity ↑ until all pigments are being used
  • Photosynthesis is most efficient w/in certain temperature range
slide14

Section 5-3

  • O2 makes production of ATP more efficient, although some ATP is made w/o O2
  • Aerobic:
  • Metabolic processes that need O2
  • Anaerobic:
  • Metabolic processes that don’t need O2
slide15

Section 5-3

  • 2 Stages of Cellular Respiration:
  • Stage 1:
  • Glucose converted to pyruvate, makes small amt of ATP/NADH
  • Stage 2:
  • O2 present, pyruvate/NADH used to make large amt of ATP via ETC
  • O2 not present, pyruvate converted to either lactate or ethanol/CO2
slide16

Section 5-3

  • Stage 1: Breakdown of Glucose/Glycolysis
  • Glycolysis:
  • 1st stage of cellular respiration, glucose is broken down in cytoplasm
  • As glucose is broken down, some of its H atoms are transferred to an e- acceptor called NAD+ to form an e- carrier NADH
  • Some ATP, NADH, 2 pyruvates result
slide17

Section 5-3

  • Stage 2: Production of ATP
  • O2 is present, pyruvate enters mitochondria and is converted to 2-C compd
  • This rxn produces 1 CO2 molecule, 1 NADH molecule, and 1, 2-C acetyl group
  • Acetyl group is attached to coenzyme A (CoA), forming acetyl-CoA that enters the Krebs Cycle
  • more…
slide18

Section 5-3

Stage 2: Production of ATP via Krebs Cycle

Krebs cycle: series of rxns in the mitochondria where 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, and 2 ATP are made

more…

slide19

Section 5-3

  • Stage 2: Production of ATP via ETC
  • In aerobic respiration, e- donated by NADH and FADH2 pass through ETC
  • In eukaryotic cells, ETC is located in inner membranes of mitochondria
  • At end of ETC, H+ ions and e- combine w/ O molecules forming H2O
  • 34ATP made
  • via ETC
slide20

Section 5-3

  • Respiration w/o Oxygen is Fermentation
  • When O2is present, aerobic respiration occurs to produce ATP
  • When O2isn’t present, fermentation occurs producing lactic acid in animals or in plants alcohol/CO2