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Policy Debate. Core Concepts and Participant Training Michelle Kesling Redford Jaycees . Core Concepts. Who Can Participate in the Policy Debate Competition?. The short answer is anyone!.
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Policy Debate Core Concepts and Participant Training Michelle Kesling Redford Jaycees
Who Can Participate in the Policy Debate Competition? The short answer is anyone! All are eligible for the Policy Debate Program regardless of profession, experience, or office (in contrast to the limitations set by the existing Jaycee debate program). But I have no experience. The main differences between Policy Debate and the existing Jaycee debate are the type of topic and the format. You don’t have to have experience in order to participate.
What is Policy Debate? • It is similar to Jaycee Debate in terms of difficulty • There are a few differences: • Who can participate • Format • Topic • Use of evidence
Why Should YOU Debate? • Increases critical thinking skills- it requires participants to critically examine both sides of an issue. Promotes problem solving and innovative thinking • Increases occupational achievement- participants develop strong listening skills, tact and self confidence which leads to taking on and being successful in leadership roles • Increases communication and speaking skills- both necessary for career and personal development
What are the Benefits for your Chapter? • Member Development • Helps with Blue Chip • Recruitment Tool
Participants Affirmative Team Negative Team VS. 1st Affirmative Speaker 2nd Affirmative Speaker 1st Negative Speaker 2nd Negative Speaker
Speaking Order and Format • 1st Affirmative Constructive – 4 minutes • Cross Examination – 2 minutes • 1st Negative Constructive – 5 minutes • Cross Examination – 2 minutes • 2nd Affirmative Constructive – 5 minutes • Cross Examination – 2 minutes • 2nd Negative Constructive – 5 minutes • Cross Examination – 2 minutes • 1st Negative Rebuttal – 3 minutes • 1st Affirmative Rebuttal – 4 minutes • 2nd Negative Rebuttal – 3 minutes • 2nd Affirmative Rebuttal – 3 minutes • In round preparation time – 5 minutes/team that can be used anytime during the debate.
Type of Topics and Use of Evidence • Topics are real world, policy oriented. • Topics are announced weeks ahead of the competition. • Use of evidence is permitted and encouraged although not required.
Affirmative Side • Upholds the resolution • Promotes change to the status quo • Questions they answer • Why have we not done the proposed change yet? • Why is change good? What benefits will happen or what harms will we change? • How the change will solve the problems or cause the benefits to occur?
Negative Side • Upholds the status quo • Says change proposed is a bad idea • Questions they answer • Are we already doing the proposed change? Do we actually need to do anything different? • What negative things could happen because of the proposed change? • Will the proposed change actually work?
Remember- Policy Debate is Switch Side • You have an equal chance of having to defend either side • Prepare to defend both
What is a Constructive? • Constructive speeches are used to set up the issues for the debate. • This is the speech where new arguments are made. • This is when you use your evidence to help build your arguments.
What is a Rebuttal? • Rebuttal speeches are used to answer your opponents arguments. • They are used to develop and deepen your own arguments. • They should narrow down the debate to the few key arguments necessary for your side to win.
What is Cross-Examination? • Cross-examination, or cross-ex, is a question and answer period between constructives. • Cross-ex time is used to: • Ask clarifying questions • Set up your arguments for your next speech • Poke holes in your opponents arguments
But how do I know what arguments the other team is making? • Flowing is a form of shorthand- it is a way to take notes of what the debaters say. • It allows you to keep track of what your opponents are saying in order to know what arguments you have to answer in your next speech.
Use of Evidence • As stated above, evidence is encouraged although not required • Potential sources of evidence are: news reports, editorials, policy journals, websites, newspaper, etc. • You can indict opponents evidence
Being Affirmative • Remember they uphold the resolution • Does not have to be the whole resolution- you can pick one issue that is part of the resolution • They speak first and last
How to put together a 1AC • Inherency • Plan Text • Advantage/ Harms • Solvency
Being Negative • The uphold the present system • They prove the change the affirmative endorses is a bad idea • Can use multiple reasons and avenues of argumentation to prove the affirmative is wrong
Case Arguments • These are usually internal things that are wrong with the affirmative • Examples: • The affirmative won’t actually fix the problem • The problems are already being solved outside of the affirmative
Topicality • Topicality ensures that the debate is actually about the topic • It utilizes the definition of a word and proves why the affirmative is outside the topic area RESOLUTION UNTOPICAL AFF TOPICAL AFF
Topicality Format • Definition of the word that they violate • Statement of reason they violate • Why it matters that they violate • Is it not fair? • Does it make it to hard to debate? Or be prepared for?
Disadvantages • This is usually an external consequence of the affirmative happening • Example • If you pass plan, it costs a bunch of money, then we cant pay for other things • Focusing on this plan means that the government cant focus on this other important plan
Disadvantage Format • How things are now • What the plan does to change it • What the ultimate consequence is
Turns • Used by BOTH affirmative and negative • They are an offensive argument • By using it you are saying whatever the other team says is good, is actually bad, or vice versa • For example: • They say we should do plan because it makes driving easier which is good. You say making driving easier is bad because its bad for the environment.
Remember Cross-EX • The point of Cross-ex is to clarify as well as set up arguments • You will be asked questions after you finish your constructive. • One member of the other team (the person who does not speak next) will ask you questions. • You will also have to ask questions of the other team.
Cross- Ex Tips • Remember to ask questions. Statements followed by the phrase “right?” are not actual questions. • BE NICE. You can be confident and assertive without being rude. • Set up arguments, don’t make arguments in cross-ex.
Flowing • This is a way of keeping track of everything that is said in the debate. • Each speech is written in a column with following speeches written next to them. • This format allows you to see the structure and outline of the speech. Assists in organization. • Developing a shorthand will help you write down everything that is said.
Flowing See the multiple columns? See the shorthand?
Judging- What am I being evaluated on? • Debate is still a persuasive activity. • Judging is somewhat subjective- based on logical arguments for why you should be preferred. • Usually it comes down to a cost benefit analysis of the policy being proposed.