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The Rule of Law and the impact on women’s employment in Kosovo. The Rule of Law and the impact on women’s economic empowerment in Kosovo. Kosovo Map. Some data about Kosovo. 1.8 million people Albanians, Serbs, Bosnians, Turks, Gorani, Roma, Ashkali, Egyptians 49,6 % women – 50,4% men

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the rule of law and the impact on women s employment in kosovo

The Rule of Law and the impact on women’s employment in Kosovo

The Rule of Law and the impact on women’s economic empowerment in Kosovo

some data about kosovo
Some data about Kosovo
  • 1.8 million people
  • Albanians, Serbs, Bosnians, Turks, Gorani, Roma, Ashkali, Egyptians
  • 49,6 % women – 50,4% men
  • 46,1 % under age of 25
information
Information
  • 17 February 2008- declared independence
  • September 2012 – supervised independence ended
  • Recognized by 103 states out of 193 UN members
  • Still not recognized by 5 members of EU
  • Admitted to IMF, WB, CEFTA
  • December 2012- joined EBRD
some more numbers
Some more numbers
  • Unemployment:
  • Men : 40,7 %
  • Women: 56,4% (UNDP), 46 % (MLSW), 44,4% (Agency of Statistics)
  • Poverty 29,7 %
  • Only 12% of exports is covered by import
women and entrepreneurship
Women and entrepreneurship
  • 10,4 % of businesses owned by women (even some of these are run by men)
  • Only 3 % of loans credited to women
  • 8 % of real estate owned by women
  • Only 18,6 % women are economically active
woman on executive positions
Woman on executive positions
  • Woman President
  • 30% of National Parliament are women due to the imposed quota
  • Out of 18 ministries only 2 are women and one Deputy Prime-minister
  • No woman Mayor
  • No President of Political Party
legal infrastructure
Legal Infrastructure
  • Not signatory of CEDAW but the gender equality was included in the Constitution on April 2008
  • Legal framework is quite completed regarding protection of human rights
  • 2001 Constitutional Framework (no discrimination on any ground)
  • 2004 Law on Gender Equality
gender equality in employment
Gender Equality in Employment
  • Labor Law 2010 :
  • Equal Access to employment
  • Maternity
  • Working Conditions
  • Equal Payment
  • Professional Growth
  • Prohibiting Discrimination and Penalties
  • Measures to insure Gender Equality
gender equality and entrepreneurship
Gender Equality and Entrepreneurship
  • EU Small Business Act
  • Law on Small and Medium Business Act
  • Some movement to make the conditions to register business easier have been taken lately
  • Agency for SME development is required to take into consideration MSEM with over 50% female in their start up phase
mechanisms to ensure gender equality
Mechanisms to ensure gender equality
  • Agency for Gender Equality
  • Gender Equality Unit within the Ombudsperson Institution
  • Officers for Gender Equality
  • Labor Inspectorate
  • SME Support Agency
  • Municipality Gender Affairs Officers
  • Municipal Committees for GE
  • Women Caucuses
research methodology
Research methodology
  • Desk research of legislation and existing studies related to the issue
  • 2 Focus groups and semi structured interviews
  • 2 case studies
  • The data and database are challenging- different resources, different data
gaps between legislation and implementation
Gaps between legislation and implementation
  • No gender responsive budgeting
  • No follow-up research on the effects of the Labor Law on informal/formal employment
  • Collecting data is a challenge
  • Communication between local and central level is weak
  • Lack of cooperation between Civil Society, government and donors
challenges identified by fg
Challenges identified by FG
  • Discrimination
  • Lack of education and professional training
  • Nepotism
  • Inadequate working conditions
  • Maternity leave
  • Balance between family life and professional life (change of mentality can be part of it)
challenges identified by fg1
Challenges identified by FG
  • Equal payment was not mentioned by FG
  • AGE- gender has the highest impact on difference of salary- 180,2 for women and 202,9 for men – 12% difference
challenges by women entrepreneurs
Challenges by women entrepreneurs
  • Cost of financing and access to finance (including property issue)
  • Family support
  • Courage and self-confidence
  • Lack of programs to stimulate women entrepreneurs
  • Lack of adequate education
  • Lack of knowledge to establish partnerships
case study 1 dhurata bardoniqi
Case study 1: Dhurata Bardoniqi

- Her husband was killed during the war

  • She continued his work in partnership in the construction company
  • The support of her mother in law was crucial for her
  • Challenges: balancing family life and professional life, partnership relationships, limited access to finance, discrimination based on gender and no support for domestic companies
case study 2 remzije berisha
Case study 2: Remzije Berisha
  • Participant of WfWI program after the death of her husband
  • Started as elder care giver and selling her handcrafts
  • Established the Association of women farmers that grew to 40 members
  • Challenges: access to resources, lack of education, traditional mentality
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Inefficiencies in the Rule of Law which has a negative impact on investments
  • Women are disadvantaged in the employment and entrepreneurship
  • No Law on labor force activation and monetary compensation
  • Lack of meaningful and comprehensive entrepreneurship development programs followed by credit schemes
recommendations
Recommendations
  • Strengthen the implementation of the existing laws
  • Law on Labor Force Activation and monetary compensation
  • Law on Social and Health insurance
  • Better communication between local and central level of the Government
  • Better cooperation between donors, Government and civil society