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Medical Terminology: A Programmed Approach Paula Bostwick and Heidi Weber

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  1. Medical Terminology:A Programmed Approach Paula Bostwick and Heidi Weber Chapter 12: The Cardiovascular System

  2. Learning Outcomes • Identify and discuss the structure and function of the cardiovascular system. • Define combining forms used in building words that relate to the cardiovascular system. • Summarize common diagnoses, laboratory tests, and clinical procedures used in testing and treating disorders of the cardiovascular system. • Define the major pathological terms of the cardiovascular system. • Define surgical terms related to the cardiovascular system. • Recognize common pharmacological classifications used to treat disorders of the cardiovascular system. Define major pathological conditions of the cardiovascular system

  3. Function/Structure • Delivers blood to the body • Oxygen and Nutrients to the body • Removes waste and Carbon Dioxide

  4. Blood Circulation

  5. Heart Anatomy

  6. Combining Forms • angi(o) blood vessel • aort(o) aorta • arteri(o), arter(o) artery • ather(o) fatty matter • atri(o) atrium

  7. Combining Forms • cardi(o) heart • hemangi(o) blood vessel • pericardi(o) pericardium • phleb(o) vein

  8. Combining Forms • sphygm(o) pulse • thromb(o) blood clot • vas(o) blood vessel • ven(o) vein

  9. Layers of the Heart

  10. Heart Valves • Four Chambers • Four valves allow blood flow in one directions • Pulmonary, Aortic,Tricuspid, and Mitral Valves

  11. Heart Valves

  12. bicuspid valve mitral valve semilunar valve pulmonary valve aortic valve Structure & Function • valves • arteries • veins • lumen • atrioventricular valve • tricuspid valve

  13. Vessels • Carry blood within the heart • To tissues and organs • Expand and Constrict to regulate blood flow

  14. Major Arteries

  15. Major Veins

  16. Blood Vessels of the Heart

  17. Blood Pressure • Pressure in arteries • Sphygmomanometer • Stethoscope • Contraction and Relaxation pressures

  18. Conduction System

  19. Conduction System Flow

  20. AHA Catagories

  21. Fetal Circulation • Fetal circulation is the circulatory system of the unborn child. • Includes the umbilical cord and the blood vessels within the placenta

  22. Path of Fetal Circulation

  23. Diagnostic, Procedural, Labs • Diagnostic, procedure and laboratory findings assist the physician in diagnosing medical conditions. • Final diagnosis • Assist in treatment planning

  24. Angiogram

  25. Pathological Conditions • Heart Rhythm • Sinus rhythm normal • Abnormal rhythms can be life threatening • risk factor • arrhythmia • bradycardia • tachycardia • atrial fibrillation • fibrillation • dysrhythmia • flutter • bruit • murmur

  26. Pathological Conditions (cont.) • rub gallop palpitations • atrioventricular block • heart block • premature atrial contractions (PACs) • premature ventricular contractions (PVCs)

  27. Blood Pressure • Elevated blood pressure can lead to cardiovascular disorders • Low blood pressure is usually not treated. • hypertensive heart disease • hypertension = high blood pressure • hypotension = low blood pressure • essential hypertension • secondary hypertension

  28. Diseases of the Blood Vessels • Blood vessels carry blood throughout the body • Damaged blood vessels compromise flow • Decreasing oxygen to the tissues and organs.

  29. Normal Vessel

  30. Vessel with Plaque

  31. Artery, Heart, Lung Disease • Heart and lungs work together to provide oxygen • Inadequate heart function • Cause lung disease.

  32. Valve Conditions • Valves responsible for maintaining blood flow • Diseased valves cause cardiovascular symptoms

  33. Surgical Terms • Cardiovascular surgery • Blockages within the cardiac vessels • Disorders of the heart valves

  34. Angioplasty

  35. Stent Placement

  36. Pharmacological Terms • Medications can treat CV diseases and symptoms • Drug Therapy • Angina, heart attack, hypertension, high cholesterol, congestive heart failure, rhythm disorders and vascular problems

  37. Chapter Review • Identify and discuss the structure and function of the cardiovascular system. • Define combining forms used in building words that relate to the cardiovascular system. • Summarize common diagnoses, laboratory tests, and clinical procedures used in testing and treating disorders of the cardiovascular system. • Define the major pathological terms of the cardiovascular system. • Define surgical terms related to the cardiovascular system. • Recognize common pharmacological classifications used to treat disorders of the cardiovascular system. Define major pathological conditions of the cardiovascular system