Information of the History of Sudan Background Info for Reading What is the What by Dave Eggers
Simulation Groups & Real Factions • North Sudanese pro-government forces, al-Bashir administration (NCP)/Janjaweed MilitiasNational Pyletopian Congressional Party & Apean Militia (Emersoniis) • North Sudanese anti-government forces, Liberation and Justice Movement/ JEM/ SLM/A Pyletopian Movement for Justice, Equality, and Liberation (PMJEL) • South Sudanese pro-government forces, SPLM/SPLA Visionary People of Pyletopia’s Liberation Movement(VPPLM) • South Sudanese anti-government forces, SSDM/SSDAPyletopian’s for the Democratization of the Republic (PDR)
Why North vs. South? • Arab vs. African • Slave-raiding and exploitation • Britain and Egypt’s imperialism
So Many Conflicts • Religion • Race • Economic exploitation • Colonialism
Way Back • Middle Ages: Arabs arrive from Egypt • 1800s: Egyptian (and therefore British) rule • Conflicts and opposition for 100 years • 1900s: British declare “Southern Policy” • North and South governed separately
First Civil War Begins • 1950s – 1970s • South mutinies against North’s domination • South creates secessionist movement called “Anya-Nya” • *** Valentino’s father is a member!
First Civil War Ends • First peace agreement in 1972= Addis Ababa Agreement (AAA) • South gets: • More autonomy • Share of natural resources
Second Civil War Begins • 1980s-2000s • North attempts to redraw lines • Violations of AAA by North • AAA abolished by North: • Divides South into 3 regions • Regional governments dissolved • Islamicization
Second Civil War Continues • 2 Groups: • SPLA (Southern) • Murahaleen (Northern) • Slavery • Lost Boys begin trek East • *** Valentino is one! • Darfur conflict begins in 2003
Second Civil War Ends • Second peace agreement in 2005 = Comprehensive Peace Agreement • Autonomy for South: • 6 year trial • Choice to make permanent in 2011 *** • Sharing oil revenues • Islamic law in North, choice in South • Darfur conflict continues
NOW! • WHAT DO YOU KNOW? What’s going on in the news? What is happening?!?!