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Use of the Old Testament In the New Testament. Definitions and Questions. Ephesians 2:16-17 kai. avpokatalla,xh| tou.j avmfote,rouj evn e`ni. sw,mati tw/| qew/| dia. tou/ staurou/( avpoktei,naj th.n e;cqran evn auvtw/|Å

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Use of the Old Testament In the New Testament


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    1. Use of the Old Testament In the New Testament Definitions and Questions

    2. Ephesians 2:16-17kai. avpokatalla,xh| tou.j avmfote,rouj evn e`ni. sw,mati tw/| qew/| dia. tou/ staurou/( avpoktei,naj th.n e;cqran evn auvtw/|Å • kai. evlqw.n euvhggeli,sato eivrh,nhn u`mi/n toi/j makra.n kai. eivrh,nhn toi/j evggu,j\

    3. Isaiah 57:19 in LXX • LXT Isaiah 57:19eivrh,nhn evpV eivrh,nhn toi/j makra.n kai. toi/j evggu.j ou=sin kai. ei=pen ku,rioj iva,somai auvtou,j • LXE Isaiah 57:19 peace upon peace to them that are far off, and to them that are nigh: and the Lord has said, I will heal them. • NAS Isaiah 57:19 Creating the praise of the lips. Peace, peace to him who is far and to him who is near," Says the LORD, "and I will heal him."

    4. Isaiah 52:7 in LXX • LXT Isaiah 52:7w`j w[ra evpi. tw/n ovre,wn w`j po,dej euvaggelizome,nou avkoh.n eivrh,nhj w`j euvaggelizo,menoj avgaqa, o[ti avkousth.n poih,sw th.n swthri,an sou le,gwn Siwn basileu,sei sou o` qeo,j • LXE Isaiah 52:7 as a season of beauty upon the mountains, as the feet of one preaching glad tidings of peace, as one preaching good news: for I will publish thy salvation, saying, O Sion, thy God shall reign.

    5. Definitions-see HS Ch. 14 fn. 1 • Quotation- also called a citation, contains a portion of the source text, usually word for word • Allusion- an indirect, imprecise or passing reference in which verbal correspondence to the source text is relatively remote • Echo- may contain a few words, but usually contains concepts or themes from the source text

    6. Questions • These Questions come from the COMMENTARY ON THE NEW TESTAMENT USE OF THE OLD TESTAMENT edited by D. A. Carson and G. K. Beale. (forthcoming in November from Baker Academic)

    7. Questions • 1. What is the NT context of the citation or allusion? Establish the topic of discussion, the flow of thought, and/or the literary structure, genre, and rhetoric of the passage.

    8. Questions • 2. What is the OT context from which the quotation or allusion is drawn? • -Sometimes one must expend much time and energy to demonstrate that a brief phrase or idea does come from a particular OT phrase and nowhere else. • Include reflection on not only the use of the OT in the NT but also the OT in the OT (called intertextuality).

    9. Questions • 3. How is the OT quotation or source handled in the literature of Second Temple Judaism or (more broadly yet) of early Judaism? • -This may show how these texts were understood by sources roughly contemporary with the NT. • -They sometimes show that Jewish authorities were divided about some passages.

    10. 3 continued • -In some instances the readings provide a foil for early Christian writings • -In a handful of cases, NT writers apparently display direct dependence on sources belonging to early Judaism in their handling of the OT (e.g., Jude). What is to be inferred from such dependence?

    11. Questions • 4. What textual factors must be borne in mind as one seeks to understand a particular use of the OT? Is the author citing the LXX, the MT, Targums (Aramaic translations and commentary on the OT), or a dependence on memory? • -Is there a significance in tiny changes? • -Are there textual variations in the citation?

    12. Questions • 5. How is the NT author using the OT text? • -Is the connection simply a connection of language? • -Is the NT writer faithful to the OT text? • -What does “fulfillment” meant to the NT writer? • What kind of exegetical technique does the author use?

    13. Questions • 6. To what theological use does the NT writer put the OT quotation or allusion? • -Writers apply OT passages that speak of YHWH to Jesus. • -Writers apply OT passages that speak of Israel to Jesus. • -Is this common among Jewish exegetes?