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PRE-COLUMBIAN (1492) N. AMERICA PowerPoint Presentation
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  2. Age of Exploration • The European expansion into the Americas created a collision of two worlds. The results were disastrous for the Indians. This collision also imitated an intercontinental exchange between the two worlds. The construction of the Spanish empire led other European nations to pursue colonization. Political and religious developments influenced how these nations pursued expansion into the Americas with trade playing a pivotal role in these early efforts.

  3. Early Exploration • 1492:Christopher Columbus reaches Hispanola • 1498:John Cabot sailed the Eastern Shore near present day Worcester County. • 1507: The name "America" is first used (Amerigo Vespucci) • 1513:Juan Ponce de León explores the Florida coast. • 1524:Giovanni da Verrazano explores the coast from Carolina north to Nova Scotia, enters New York harbor. • 1540:Francisco Vásquez de Coronado explores the Southwest. • 1541:Hernando de Soto of Spain discovers the Mississippi River. • 1565: St. Augustine, Florida, is founded by the Spanish • 1585: First English settlement at Roanoke Island, North Carolina. • 1588: In Europe, the defeat of the Spanish Armada by the English • 1606: King James I granted a charter to the Virginia Company to establish a colony in America.

  4. European Settlement • The Spanish, French, and English established settlements that would later be sections of the United States. French and Spanish settlers mixed with the Indian population when building communities more than the British did. Differences in economies, ideological outlooks, and events in England also accounted for differences between the British colonies in the Chesapeake, New England, and the South. The colonists of New England built the most vital communities. Various self-government systems were set up, but they were not democratic. Conflicting views in England, as well as rivalry with France, brought an attempt at tighter centralization of control under royal authority. Native Americans tried to use differences and rivalries to keep their cultures intact and limit their rivals. A series of wars weakened Indian control east of the Appalachians.

  5. 1600’s Timeline • 1607 VA Colony founded – Jamestown • 1612 Rolfe perfects Tobacco • 1614 1st Anglo‐Powhatan War Ends • 1619 First Africans Arrive in Jamestown • House of Burgesses established • 1620 Pilgrims sail to Plymouth Bay/Mayflower Compact • 1624 VA becomes a Royal Colony • Dutch found New Amsterdam • 1630 Puritans found New Amsterdam • 1634 MD Colony founded • 1635-36 • R. Williams convicted of heresy/founds Rhode Island • CT and New Haven Colonies founded • 1637 Pequot War • 1638 A. Hutchinson banished from MA Colony • 1640s Large Scale Slave Systems in West Indies • 1643 New England Confederation formed • 1644 Second Anglo‐Powhatan War • 1649 Act of Toleration ‐ MD • 1664 England seizes New Netherland from Dutch • E. & W. Jersey Colonies founded • 1670 Carolina Colony founded • 1675 - 76 • King Philip’s War • 1676 Bacon’s Rebellion • 1680s Mass Expansion of Slavery in Colonies • 1681 W. Penn founds PA • 1688 Glorious Revolution • Leisler’s Rebellion ‐ NY • 1692 Salem Witch Trials

  6. MAP 3.2 New France in the Seventeenth Century By the late seventeenth century, French settlements were spread from the town of Port Royal in Acadia to the post and mission at Sault Ste. Marie on the Great Lakes. But the heart of New France comprised the communities stretching along the St. Lawrence River between the towns of Quebec and Montreal.

  7. MAP 3.3 European Colonies of the Atlantic Coast, 1607–39 Virginia, on Chesapeake Bay, was the first English colony in North America, but by the mid-seventeenth century, Virginia was joined by settlements of Scandinavians on the Delaware River, and Dutch on the Hudson River, as well as English religious dissenters in New England. The territories indicated here reflect the vague boundaries of the early colonies.

  8. MAP 3.5 Spread of Settlement: British Colonies, 1650–1700 The spread of settlement in the English colonies in the late seventeenth century created the conditions for a number of violent conflicts, including King Philip’s War, Bacon’s Rebellion, and King William’s War.

  9. Early Slavery The success of European empires was based on a system of slavery, and particularly how the English benefited from that system in the Americas and at home. Just as the English gained knowledge and skills from the Indians, colonists also were aided by the skills and agricultural knowledge of African slaves. The hardship and suffering of slavery was buffered by the development of African-American communities among people drawn from many different West African cultures, as well as from positive, if unintended, cultural exchanges between Europeans and enslaved peoples.

  10. FIGURE 4.1 Estimated Number of Africans Imported to British North America, 1701–75 These official British statistics include only slaves imported legally, and consequently undercount the total number who arrived on American shores. But the trend over time is clear. With the exception of the 1750s, when the British colonies were engulfed by the Seven Years War, the slave trade continued to rise in importance in the decades before the Revolution. SOURCE:R.C.Simmons,The American Colonies:From Settlement to Independence (London:Longman,1976),186.

  11. MAP 4.3 Triangular Trade Across the Atlantic The pattern of commerce among Europe, Africa, and the Americas became known as the “Triangular Trade.” Sailors called the voyage of slave ships from Africa to America the “Middle Passage” because it formed the crucial middle section of this trading triangle.

  12. 1700s Colonial America: Salutary Neglect • During the eighteenth century, colonial North America was transformed by the interaction between tradition and change. In the British colonies, immigration and economic growth contributed to deep-rooted change. The Great Awakening was a strong religious response to the ongoing transformation. Revivalism sowed seeds for later political action.

  13. Timeline to 1754 • 1712 NC Separates from SC • NY City slave revolt • 1718 French found New Orleans • 1732 Poor Richard’s Almanack, begins • 1733 GA Colony founded ‐ Oglethorpe • 1734 J. Edwards begins Great Awakening • Zenger Free‐Press Trial NYC • 1738 G. Whitefield spreads Great Awakening • 1739 Stono Rebellion – S.C. • 1754 Albany Congress

  14. Revolutionary Era • While Britain became the dominant European power in North America, its very success and subsequent attempts to centralize power brought resistance from British colonists. Through many types of organization, the colonies developed an “American” identity. This new community of interest was often encouraged by inept British actions. The outcome of this unhealthy dynamic was that thirteen colonies decided to leave the empire and declare themselves independent.

  15. Timeline 1754 - 1781 • 1754-63 • French/Indian War (Seven Year’s War) • 1757 Pitt is leader of British Government • 1759 Battle of Quebec • 1763 Peace of Paris • Pontiac’s Uprising • Proclamation of 1763 • 1764 Sugar Act • 1765 Quartering Act • Stamp Act • Stamp Act Congress ‐ NYC • 1766 Declaratory Act • 1767 Townshend Acts • NY Legislature suspended by Parliament • 1768 British troops occupy Boston • 1770 Boston Massacre • 1772 Committees of Correspondence • 1773 British East India Co. granted Tea monopoly • 1774 Intolerable Acts • Quebec Act • First Continental Congress • The Association ‐ Boycott • 1775 Battle of Lexington/Concord • Quakers found first Anti‐Slavery Society • 2nd Continental Congress • Battle of Bunker Hill • King George III declares colonies rebellious • Failed invasion of Canada • 1776 Paine ‐ Common Sense • Declaration of Independence • Battle of Trenton • NJ Constitution temporarily gives women right to vote • 1777 Battle of Saratoga • Articles of Confederation adopted by 2nd Congress • 1778 French‐Anglo Alliance • 1781 Battle of Cowpens • A of C put into effect • Cornwallis surrenders at Yorktown

  16. MAP 6.1 The War for Empire in North America, 1754–1763 The Seven Years’ War in America (also known as the French and Indian War) was fought in three principal areas: Nova Scotia and what was then Acadia, the frontier between New France and New York, and the upper Ohio River—gateway to the Old Northwest.

  17. MAP 6.2 European Claims in North America, 1750 and 1763 As a result of the British victory in the Seven Years’ War, the map of colonial claims in North America was fundamentally transformed.

  18. In Paul Revere’s version of the Boston Massacre, issued three weeks after the incident, the British fire an organized volley into a defenseless crowd. Revere’s print—which he plagiarized from another Boston engraver—may have been inaccurate, but it was enormously effective propaganda. It hung in so many Patriot homes that the judge hearing the murder trial of these British soldiers warned the jury not to be swayed by “the prints exhibited in our houses.” SOURCE:The Library of Congress.

  19. MAP 6.5 The First Engagements of the Revolution The first military engagements of the American Revolution took place in the spring of 1775 in the countryside surrounding Boston.

  20. On July 9, 1776, shortly after the Declaration of Independence was signed, General Washington gathered his troops at the present-day City Hall Park in Manhattan and had the document read to them. An unruly group of soldiers and townspeople then marched to the south end of Broadway and pulled down a large gilded lead statue of King George III. The head impaled upon a stake and the rest hauled to Connecticut to be melted down for bullets. The event became a favorite scene for historical painters of the nineteenth century. SOURCE:William Walcutt,Pulling Down the Statue of George III at Bowling Green ,1857.Oil on canvas,51 5/8” X 77 5/8"Lafayette College Art Collection,Easton,Pennsylvania.

  21. 1783 – 1789: The New Republic • Americans had traditions of local autonomy and power competing against the new and much more fragile concept of nationhood. Various groups based on class, sex and ethnic identity also made demands upon the new state governments and Congress. Economic dislocation added to the volatile mix. The national government under the Articles of Confederation managed successfully to gain independence and make certain reforms. Its inability to solve economic problems and resulting internal rebellions led to a desire to strengthen the national government and create a more centralized United States.

  22. The New Republic cont… • The challenge of blending local community sentiments with national ones, once the unifying factor of a common enemy, was eliminated by victory in the Revolution. A new Constitution was developed that was stronger than the old Articles of the Confederation.

  23. Timeline 1783 - 1789 • 1783 Treaty of Paris • 1785 Land Ordinance of 1785 • 1786 VA Statute for Religious Freedom • Shay’s Rebellion • Meeting of 5 states to revise A of C • 1787 Northwest Ordinance • Constitutional Convention ‐ Philadelphia • 1788 Nine states ratify constitution • 1789 Constitution put into effect

  24. D. North America after the Treaty of Paris MAP 7.6 North America after the Treaty of Paris, 1783 The map of European and American claims to North America was radically altered by the results of the American Revolution.

  25. MAP 7.5 State Claims to Western Lands The ratification of the Articles of Confederation in 1781 awaited settlement of the western claims of eight states. Vermont, claimed by New Hampshire and New York, was not made a state until 1791, after disputes were settled the previous year. The territory north of the Ohio River was claimed in whole or in part by Virginia, New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts. All of them had ceded their claims by 1786, except for Connecticut, which had claimed an area just south of Lake Erie, known as the Western Reserve; Connecticut ceded this land in 1800. The territory south of the Ohio was claimed by Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia; in 1802, the latter became the last state to cede its claims.

  26. The Land Ordinance of 1785 created an ordered system of survey (revised by the Northwest Ordinance of 1787), diving the land into townships and sections.

  27. C. Ratifying the New Constitution MAP 8.1 The Ratification of the Constitution, 1787–90 The distribution of the vote for the ratification of the Constitution demonstrated its wide support in sections of the country linked to the commercial economy, and its disapproval in more remote and backcountry sections. (Note that Maine remained a part of Massachusetts until admitted as a separate state in 1820.)

  28. Chapter 3 AP Guidelines • Chapter 3: • 2.1 First European contacts with American Indians • 2.2 Spain's empire in North America • 2.3 French colonization of Canada • 2.4 English settlement of New England, the Mid-Atlantic region, and the South • 2.5 From servitude to slavery in the Chesapeake region • 2.6 Religious diversity in the American colonies • 2.7 Resistance to colonial authority: Bacon's Rebellion, the Glorious Revolution and the Pueblo Revolt

  29. Chapter 4 AP Guidelines • Chapter 4: • 3.2 Transatlantic trade and the growth of seaports • 3.4 Growth of plantation economies and slave societies • 3.6 Colonial governments and imperial policy in British North America

  30. Chapters 5 & 6 AP Guidelines • Chapter 5: • 3.1 Population growth and immigration • 3.5 The Enlightenment and the Great Awakening • Chapter 6: • 4.1 The French and Indian War • 4.2 The Imperial Crisis and resistance to Britain

  31. Essay questions • 1. For the period before 1750, analyze the ways in which Britain's policy of salutary neglect influenced the development of American society as illustrated in the following: • Legislative assemblies • Commerce • Religion • 2. Analyze the extent to which religious freedom existed in the British North American colonies prior to 1700. • 3. Compare and contrast the ways in which economic development affected politics in Massachusetts and Virginia in the period 1607 to 1750.

  32. Essay questions • 4. Analyze the cultural and economic responses of TWO of the following groups to the Indians of North America before 1750. • British French Spanish • 5. How did economic, geographic, and social factors encourage the growth of slavery as an important part of the economy of the southern colonies between 1607 and 1775? • 6. Compare and contrast the two views of Empire, which had come to exist by 1763.

  33. More AP Guidelines • Chapter 6: • 4.3 The War for Independence • Chapter 7: • 4.4 State constitutions and the Articles of Confederation • Chapter 8: • 4.5 The federal Constitution • 5.1 Washington, Hamilton, shaping of the national government • 5.2 Emergence of political parties: Federalists and Republicans • Chapter 9: • 5.5 Significance of Jefferson's presidency • 5.6 Expansion into the trans-Appalachian West; American Indian resistance • 5.8 The War of 1812 and its consequences

  34. Essay questions • 1. To what extent had the colonists developed a sense of identity and unity as Americans by the eve of the Revolution? • 2. Analyze the extent to which the American Revolution represented a radical alteration in American political ideas and institutions. Confine your answer to the period of 1775 to 1800. • 3. Analyze the degree to which the Articles of Confederation provided an effective form of government with respect to any TWO of the following: • foreign relations economic conditions western lands • 4. What evidence is there for the assertion that the basic principles of the Constitution were firmly grounded in the political and religious thought of America's colonial and revolutionary periods?

  35. Essay questions • 5. “The Bill of Rights did not come from a desire to protect the liberties won in the American Revolution but rather from a fear of the powers of the new federal government.” Assess the validity of this statement. • 6. “Early U.S. foreign policy was primarily a defensive reaction to perceived or actual threats from Europe.” Assess the validity of this generalization with reference to U.S. foreign policy on TWO major issues during the period 1789-1820. • 7. Analyze the contributions of TWO of the following in helping establish a stable government after the adoption of the Constitution. • John Adams Thomas Jefferson George Washington