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13-3. Chapter 13-3: Mutations. 13-3. Gene Mutations. Small DNA changes O ne or a few nucleotides Point mutations occur at a single point in the DNA sequence 3 Types of point mutations: Substitutions Deletions Insertions. 13-3. Substitution Mutations.

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gene mutations

13-3

Gene Mutations
  • Small DNA changes
    • One or a few nucleotides
  • Point mutations occur at a single point in the DNA sequence
  • 3 Types of point mutations:
    • Substitutions
    • Deletions
    • Insertions
substitution mutations

13-3

Substitution Mutations
  • One nitrogenous base is changed to another
  • Usually affects only one amino acid
  • Least harmful mutation

Substitution

frameshift mutations

13-3

Frameshift Mutations
  • Caused by either a deletion or an insertion
  • Entire “reading frame” is shifted
  • Multiple amino acids affected

Deletion

chromosomal mutations

13-3

Chromosomal Mutations
  • Changes in the number or structure of entire chromosomes
  • Impacts much more genetic information than gene mutations
    • Much more severe
  • 4 Types:
    • Deletion
    • Duplication
    • Inversion
    • Translocation

Original

chromosomal mutations7

13-3

Chromosomal Mutations

Deletion

Duplication

Inversion

Translocation

causes of mutations

13-3

Causes of Mutations
  • Natural:
    • Errors in DNA replication, transcription, or translation
      • Reproduction rate
      • Age
  • Artificial:
    • Mutagens- physical or chemical agents that cause mutations
      • Pesticides
      • Radiation (e.g. UV light)
      • Pollution
      • Tobacco smoke
effects of mutations

13-3

Effects of Mutations
  • Most mutations are harmful
    • Cancer
    • Disorders
    • Deformities
  • Some are beneficial:
    • Polyploidly- organisms with extra sets of chromosomes
    • Resistance to chemicals and diseases
    • Evolution