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ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ ΔΙΟΙΚΗΣΗΣ ΕΠΙΧΕΙΡΗΣΙΑΚΩΝ ΔΙΑΔΙΚΑΣΙΩΝ di.uoa.gr/~ pms541 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ ΔΙΟΙΚΗΣΗΣ ΕΠΙΧΕΙΡΗΣΙΑΚΩΝ ΔΙΑΔΙΚΑΣΙΩΝ www.di.uoa.gr/~ pms541. Μεθοδολογίες Αναδιοργάνωσης Επιχειρησιακών Διαδικασιών (ΑΕΔ) Mέρος Β’ Διδάσκουσα Αφροδίτη Τσαλγατίδου, Eπίκουρος Καθηγήτρια Email: afrodite@di.uoa.gr. Παρακαλώ κλείστε τα κινητά σας τηλέφωνα :-). M εθοδολογίες γιά ΑΕΔ.

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www di uoa gr pms541

ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ ΔΙΟΙΚΗΣΗΣ ΕΠΙΧΕΙΡΗΣΙΑΚΩΝ ΔΙΑΔΙΚΑΣΙΩΝwww.di.uoa.gr/~pms541

Μεθοδολογίες Αναδιοργάνωσης Επιχειρησιακών Διαδικασιών (ΑΕΔ)

Mέρος Β’

Διδάσκουσα

Αφροδίτη Τσαλγατίδου, Eπίκουρος Καθηγήτρια

Email: afrodite@di.uoa.gr

slide3
Mεθοδολογίες γιά ΑΕΔ
  • Methodology of Hammer & Champy
  • Methodology of Davenport & Short
  • Process Analysis and Design Method (PADM)
  • Object-Oriented Business Engineering Methodology (OO-BEM)
  • A Methodology Comparison Framework
process analysis and design method padm1
Process Analysis and Design Method (PADM)
  • PADM
    • was introduced by the Informatics Process Group (IPG) at Manchester University.
    • is a collection of techniques, which can be used for business process (re)engineering.
    • is an offspring of Process Modelling Cookbook
    • has also been influenced by the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) and Sociotechnical Systems Design(SSD)
process analysis and design method padm2
Process Analysis and Design Method (PADM)
  • PADM has also been influenced by the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) and Sociotechnical Systems Design (SSD)
    • SSM is a technique for structuring complex unstructured problems, used particularly in information system development for exploring and defining user requirements.
    • SSD considers organisations as socio-technical systems, i.e. comprising a technical and a social subsystem. Therefore, their performance depends on both these systems and their interrelation which are thus jointly designed in a way that they support each other
process analysis and design method padm3
Process Analysis and Design Method (PADM)
  • PADM recognises a recursive relationship between technology and processes:
    • the introduction of new technology affects organizational processes, and
    • in order to change a process some alterations to the support technology may be required.
process analysis and design method padm4
Process Analysis and Design Method (PADM)
  • The following figure shows the general structure of PADM which support activities to be performed after the process selection has been completed.
  • The four phases form a complex activity in which the individual stages reciprocallyinteract without following a strict sequential order.
the padm framework

Business Strategy

Selected

process

Process Definition

Baseline Process Capture

Process Evaluation

Target Process Design

The PADM Framework
phases in padm process definition
Phases in PADMProcess Definition
  • Definition of the objectives, boundaries and interfaces of the selected processes
  • SSM may be used to assist this task.
  • Process categorisation also takes place here. It aims at identifying common characteristics between different processes leading to reuse opportunities.
  • Process definition is the basis for process evaluation.
phases in padm baseline process capture and representation
Phases in PADMBaseline Process Capture and Representation
  • A model of current process is developed for facilitating understanding and identifying change opportunities.
  • Several modelling techniques are used:
    • Person – centred process charts: a simple form used to codify job descriptions in terms of task, tools, resources and products.
    • IDEF0 models for high level process modeling.
    • RADs for more detailed descriptions of a process.
    • Object flow diagrams to track the passage of objects through a process. Objects are distinguished in resources used directly by the process, and tools that facilitate the process.
    • Activity diagrams capturing activity definition and ordering, process logic in terms of conditions for ordering activities, interactions between persons and activity attributes, in terms of time required, duration and resources used.
phases in padm process evaluation
Phases in PADMProcess Evaluation
  • Deficiencies in technical & social subsystem are identified. Some indicators of social problems are low job satisfaction and poor motivation. In technical system weaknesses are: ineffectiveness, i.e. failure to meet customer requirements and inefficiency, i.e. wasteful use of resources.
  • Identifying and measuring performance indicators is a key issue to process evaluation. What is measured in a particular process depends on what is important in the particular study.
phases in padm process evaluation cont
Phases in PADMProcess Evaluation (cont.)
  • The assessment may be based on a number of process properties such as:
    • accuracy (a black-box process assessment)
    • fidelity (white-box process measurement)
    • precision (the detail of process description) and
    • scalability (workload that the process can accommodate).

Metrics and simulation techniques are not used.

phases in padm target process design
Phases in PADMTarget Process Design
  • Both technical and social systems are considered.
  • Incremental improvement or radical change may be adopted. In both cases a model for the new process is developed.
  • The use of RADs is recommended for model development.
the padm framework1

Business Strategy

Selected

process

Process Definition

Baseline Process Capture

Process Evaluation

Target Process Design

The PADM Framework
padm summary concluding remarks
PADM:Summary & Concluding Remarks
  • PADM aims at a flexible, broad and adaptable methodological framework to be used across a wide spectrum of projects
    • from incremental process improvement activities to broad-scale innovation projects involving top-down organisational change.
padm summary concluding remarks cont
PADM:Summary & Concluding Remarks (cont.)
  • The PADM framework is considered to operate in a strategic business context, i.e.
    • it doesn’t involve either a phase of creating a business vision or a phase of learning how other organisations’s similar processes are performed.
    • it does not contain a process selection activity.
  • Main emphasis is given to process modelling by trying to select the appropriate modelling notation according to
    • its role in BPR,
    • the type of information it provides and
    • the process perspective that it can provide.
object oriented bem
Object-Oriented BEM
  • Object orientation is an excellent way to clarify the inner workings of a company: processes
      • products
      • services
      • resources and
      • their interdependencies and interactions
  • OO-BEM was developed by Jacobson et al
object oriented bem major phases

Business Development

Reversing the existing business

(Reverse Engineering)

Envisioning

Engineering the new business

(Forward Engineering)

Installing the new business

Reengineering Directive

The reengineered Corporation

Object-Oriented BEMMajor Phases
object oriented bem the reengineering directive envisioning activity
Object-Oriented BEMThe Reengineering Directive & Envisioning Activity
  • A reengineering effort starts in response to a reengineering directive that describes:
    • current problems, the need for change and expected results.
  • This triggers an envisioning activity that produces
    • a vision of the new business with description of new or radically changed business processes and their differences from current ones.
    • measurable properties & goals for each process, like cost, quality, time, customer satisfaction and supporting technology
    • future scenarios for each process & a list of risks & critical success factors
object oriented bem reversing existing business or reverse engineering
Object-Oriented BEMReversing Existing Business or Reverse Engineering
  • Triggered by the Envisioning Activity (EA), produces an outside view and an inside company view --> valuable input for EA.
    • Outside view is produced by “use case modeling” and describes the company & its environment in terms of use cases & actors involved
    • Inside view is produced by “object modeling” that depicts the internal functional and hierarchical structure & the processes & the resources used.
slide23

USE-CASE DIAGRAM

Περιγράφει τη λειτουργικότητα του συστήματος

όπως αυτή γίνεται αντιληπτή από τον χρήστη

Υπογραφή ασφάλειας

Στατιστικάστοιχεία

πωλήσεων

Στατιστικά στοιχεία πελατών

Πελάτης

Πράκτορας ασφαλειών

slide24

ΔΙΑΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΑ ΚΛΑΣΕΩΝ

(CLASS DIAGRAMS)

ΚΑΤΟΧΟΣ

ΥΠΟΛΟΓΙΣΤΗΣ

:

Όνομα : Συμβολοσειρά

χρησιμοποιεί

όνομα

Συμβολοσειρά

Ηλικία:

:

Ακέραιος

Μνήμη : Ακέραιος

0..1

1..*

  • Οι τάξεις συσχετίζονται με διάφορους τρόπους
  • σύνδεσης
  • εξάρτησης
  • ειδίκευσης(μια τάξη είναι ειδική περίπτωση κάποιας άλλης
  • ομαδοποίησης
slide25

ΔΙΑΓΡΑΜΜΑ ΑΝΤΙΚΕΙΜΕΝΩΝ

(OBJECT DIAGRAMS)

Δίνουν παράδειγμα εμφάνισης στιγμιότυπων

των τάξεων και τις μεταξύ τους σχέσεις

Bob’s job PC

Computer

------------------

Όνομα: “Dell4”

Μνήμη =64

Bob-Κάτοχος

------------------

όνομα: ”Bob.j”

ηλικία=32

Bob’s Home

PC Computer

------------------

Όνομα:”Pentium

Μνήμη =32

object oriented bem reversing existing business or reverse engineering cont
Object-Oriented BEMReversing Existing Business or Reverse Engineering (cont.)
  • Use-case modeling & object modeling are interdependent
  • Work starts with use-case modeling and continues to object modeling when a stable use case model has been reached.
  • Necessary to work iteratively between the two models to obtain a complete, realistic, comprehensible, informative and evaluated model of the current business.
  • Use case models describe complete courses of events with a measurable value for the customer. They are evaluated against certain metrics.
object oriented bem reversing existing business or reverse engineering cont1
Object-Oriented BEMReversing Existing Business or Reverse Engineering (cont.)
  • Critical business processes are identified and given a priority
  • Use cases are described again during “object modelling” but now in terms of participating subsystems
  • Objects carrying out the activities described in each use case are identified and their interactions are modelled in a high level way.
  • Existing use cases are measured to obtain metrics values to be compared with corresponding metrics from the use cases to be designed for the new business.
  • Problems and limitations are identified and existing IT support and knowledge are identified.
  • Result is an evaluated object model of the existing business. This model is then used in the as the basis in the next phase, the ‘engineering the new business’ also called forward engineering.
object oriented bem engineering the new business or forward engineering
Object-Oriented BEMEngineering the New Business or Forward Engineering
  • The goal is to produce a model for the new organisation. This is achieved by a number of activities usually performed in parallel that produce:
      • an outside view of the new organisation describing new or redesigned processes, focusing on their interfaces to the environment. The outside view of the process is developed with the use of the use-case model.
      • inside views of the new organisation which are object-oriented models. Process may be modeled according to their work tasks and their relations, or the products or sub-products it affects. These object-oriented models are rather abstract and are also called ideal models as it is an ideal model of the organisation.
      • a real modelwhich contains the ideal models adapted to the restrictions found in the business and captures the necessary object interactions for the realization of the use cases.
      • IT support required for the processes in the new business.
object oriented bem engineering the new business or forward engineering cont
Object-Oriented BEMEngineering the New Business or Forward Engineering (cont.)
  • The proposed new models are simulated and tested before their actual implementation.
  • The result is an evaluated and simulated model of the proposed organisation.
object oriented bem installing the new business
Object-Oriented BEMInstalling the New Business
  • This is the last phase concerning the implementation of the proposed changes
  • New and/or redesigned business processes are introduced into the organisation.
  • Existing processes need to run until the complete installation of new ones without disturbing the environment in which they both operate.
object oriented bem major phases1

Business Development

Reversing the existing business

(Reverse Engineering)

Envisioning

Engineering the new business

(Forward Engineering)

Installing the new business

Reengineering Directive

The reengineered Corporation

Object-Oriented BEMMajor Phases
object oriented bem summary concluding remarks
Object-Oriented BEMSummary & Concluding Remarks
  • OO-BEM is strongly related to the implementation of the information systems that will support the new business processes.
  • Thus, using object orientation is beneficial, as it enables the easy transition between the modelled business and the modelled information system.
  • But from a business management point of view, the proposed modelled notations are not sufficient since they fail to efficiently provide a view of the process flow.
  • It seems that the object oriented modelling should be integrated with more process oriented modelling notations.
bpr methodology comparison framework
BPR Methodology Comparison Framework
  • We examined a representative set of methodologies that share common phases and features, but also differ in the way they approach reengineering. Their main differences are in:
      • whether or not they recommend detail modelling and analysis of current situation
      • whether they support incremental or radical changes to business processes and
      • whether they suggest the study of successful organisations before embarking a BPR project.
bpr methodology comparison framework cont
BPR Methodology Comparison Framework(cont.)
  • The methodology comparison framework, comprises five major phases of a BPR project:
    • 1. Learning process phase
    • 2. Create a business vision
    • 3. Modelling and analysis of current (as-is) processes
    • 4. Modelling and analysis of to-be processes
    • 5. Transition to a continuous process improvement effort
  • Each phase has certain objectives & value and entails potential risks it entails. Also well-known techniques used to perform each phase.
  • Each of the described methodologies is placed within this comparison framework and some conclusions are discussed.
bpr methodology comparison framework the learning process phase
BPR Methodology Comparison FrameworkThe Learning Process Phase
  • Some BPR methodologies include a phase during which the reengineering team collects information about customer needs, capabilities of competitors, the way successful organisations operate, and technology capabilities.
  • This is in fact a learning process through which the BPR team can estimate the organisation’s position in the market, how customers will be more satisfied, learn how successful competitor and non-competitor organisations operate.
bpr methodology comparison framework the learning process phase cont
BPR Methodology Comparison FrameworkThe Learning Process Phase (cont.)
  • Benchmarking is very useful during this phase.
    • American Productivity & Quality centre defines benchmarking as “the process of identifying, understanding and adapting outstanding practices & processes from organisations anywhere in the world to help your organisation improve its performance”
  • Benchmarking may be considered as the process of measuring best performance but it is actually the process of learning lessons about how best performance is accomplished.
  • A benchmarking project may either be part of a reengineering or a continuous improvement project or stand-alone. In both cases it is focused on identifying, studying, analysing and adapting best practices and implementing the results.
bpr methodology comparison framework the learning process phase cont1
BPR Methodology Comparison FrameworkThe Learning Process Phase (cont.)
  • A best practice is in general a method that can be judged to be superior to other methods.
  • For a particular organisation a best practice is finally determined according to the particular circumstances, its human & financial resources, IT infrastructure etc.
  • After a best practice is defined, the BPR team is based on it in order to evaluate existing work processes and subsequently design and evaluate new ones.
bpr methodology comparison framework the learning process phase cont2
BPR Methodology Comparison FrameworkThe Learning Process Phase (cont.)
  • Jacobson’s methodology incorporates a learning process step.
  • Hammer’s and Champy’s methodology considers that:
    • observing customers and learning about their expectations is an essential part for defining business vision, while
    • benchmarking is useful as far as it does not prevent innovative thinking.
bpr methodology comparison framework create a business vision
BPR Methodology Comparison FrameworkCreate a Business Vision
  • One of the most important tasks as it gives the effort’s boundaries and a direction to go on.
  • A difficult task as it should give as an output a clear statement of organisation’s future state.
  • In order to create effective visions, a learning process prior to creating a vision step is needed.
    • Learning about business, organisation’s customers needs and expectations, organisations’ associates and best practices of competitors and non-competitors, help in creating a realistic vision without underestimating the opportunities given.
    • Lack of a creating vision step may lead to lack of orientation during a BPR effort and moreover in difficulties in designing new processes.
bpr methodology comparison framework create a business vision cont
BPR Methodology Comparison FrameworkCreate a Business Vision (cont.)
  • Hammer’s and Champy’s methodology as well as Davenport’s and Jacobson’s methodologies incorporate the phase of creation of business vision.
  • In PADM, although an envisioning activity is not a formal part of it, the methodology takes place in a strategic business context which means that such a phase has already been taken into account.
bpr methodology comparison framework modelling and analysis of current processes
BPR Methodology Comparison FrameworkModelling and Analysis of Current Processes
  • Contradictory aspects and views
  • In favour of it are researchers who believe that understanding and analysing current business processes is fundamental for a successful BPR effort. This is sometimes called evolutionary BPR.
  • Against it are researchers who stress that as-is modelling is a time consuming step, which prevents creative thinking and going beyond old ways of doing business.
bpr methodology comparison framework modelling and analysis of current processes cont
BPR Methodology Comparison FrameworkModelling and Analysis of Current Processes (cont.)
  • If continuous improvement is the case then detail as-is modeling helps in identifying problems, bottlenecks and opportunities of small changes that will improve performance.
  • The BPR effort which doesn’t include detailed modelling and analysis of current processes is also called revolutionary BPR.
  • Advocates of revolutionary BPR claim that the modelling of as-is or current processes should help a BPR team to understand current process rather than not analysing them.
bpr methodology comparison framework modelling and analysis of current processes cont1
BPR Methodology Comparison FrameworkModelling and Analysis of Current Processes (cont.)
  • Hammer’s and Champy’s methodology incorporates a phase of understanding current processes without including detail modelling and analysis of the current situation.
  • The rest of the methodologies described before incorporate as-is modeling and analysis.
bpr methodology comparison framework modelling and analysis of to be processes cont
BPR Methodology Comparison FrameworkModelling and Analysis of to-be Processes (cont.)
  • Supported by all the described methodologies.
  • In fact it is a part of all BPR methodologies as in order to describe and communicate the future state of a process, the “to-be” process is visualised.
  • In most cases there are more than one re-design options
    • These options are evaluated against expected benefits and the strategic objectives of the organisation. The best of them is selected and is further analysed to identify neglected problems. Simulation analysis can be very beneficial in this stage, because it provides a way to simulate the operation of the future process and identify its strength and potential problems.
bpr methodology comparison framework transition to continuous process improvement
BPR Methodology Comparison FrameworkTransition to Continuous Process Improvement
  • A BPR methodology that concludes to a continuous process improvement (CPI) model is very strong as it is positioned within a process management system that enables the investigation, monitoring and refinement of organisation processes.
  • If this is the case then process improvement becomes an every day task and both radical redesign and continuous process improvement becomes part of processes’ lifecycle.
  • The PADM supports the idea of process management and in fact is positioned within such a framework.
bpr methodology comparison framework summary and concluding remarks1
BPR Methodology Comparison FrameworkSummary and Concluding Remarks
  • Despite BPR’s popularity during the last decade that has peaked in 1994, today the study of BPR strategies and the suggestion of BPR methodologies should be placed around the concepts of knowledge management, change management, the learning organisation and the employee empowerment.
  • In this context BPR should not be considered as a panacea. BPR is only one of the several process improvement approaches.
bpr methodology comparison framework summary and concluding remarks cont
BPR Methodology Comparison FrameworkSummary and Concluding Remarks (cont.)
  • It is fundamental that an organisation determines whether it is appropriate or not to undertake a BPR effort having in mind the risk and the high rate of failure that comes with it. Generally, small problems can be faced with less drastic means of achieving improved performance.
  • If the organisation faces serious problems then a well organised and managed BPR project can bring the radical changes needed to overcome these problems and gain a competitive advantage.
bpr methodology comparison framework summary and concluding remarks cont1
BPR Methodology Comparison FrameworkSummary and Concluding Remarks (cont.)
  • It seems that in future, BPR will be integrated into a broader process management approach.
  • Most organisations are oriented towards combining reengineering, continuous improvement, incremental approaches and restructuring techniques into a more general approach of change management.
  • In this way, depending on the importance of the problems and their business vision, they will undertake the appropriate approach towards change.