Pre Course Quiz • What is an incident?___________________________________________________________ • Power tools must be fitted with guards and safety switches. True or False • Employees attitude may affect safety . True or False • Fall protection is required any time you use a ladder over 6 feet. True or False • Employees are must take personal responsibility for their safety, their co-workers and others on a jobsite. True or False • MSDS’s are required for most chemicals used at a worksite and should be kept locked up in the supervisor’s office for Safety. True or False • Guard rails should be installed along all open sides and ends of platforms. True or False • When setting up goals for safety on a worksite the acceptable number of incidents should be set at___________. (give a number) • If a fatality happens on a jobsite due to negligence, unsafe conditions, etc. Who is usually responsible and held accountable? Owner of company, Supervisor, Co-worker. Circle one • Safety rules and guidelines and must always be written. True or False • It is OSHA’s responsibility to establish and implement a written hazard communication program. True or False • Approximately 32 million workers work with or are potentially exposed to chemical hazards. True or False • MSDS’s are printed on a mandatory standard OSHA form. • PPE is usually an optional step for employees in dealing with hazardous chemicals. True or False • HazCom is commonly referred to as Right to know True or False • What is a Near Miss?_____________________________Do these need to be reported and investigated? True or False • Employers are responsible to pay for all PPE for their employees. True or False • Safety Inspections should be conducted on all sites at least yearly. True or False • OSHA mandates First aid and CPR training for workers on sites. True or False • AHA stands for “All Hands Attention”. True or False
Four Elements Of a Workplace Safety Program • Element #1 - Management, Leadership and Employee Involvement. • Element #2, 3 – Worksite Analysis and Hazard Prevention and Control. • Element #4 – Safety and Health Training and Education.
ELEMENT #1Management/Leadership/Employee Involvement • Employer and employee involvement and communication on workplace-safety and health issues are essential. • Post the company’s written safety and health policy for all to see. • Involve all employees in policy making on safety and health issues. • Everyone must take an active part in Safety Activities.
Management/Leadership/Employee Involvement • What is Workplace Safety? • Definition: The process of protecting employees from work related illness and injury. It starts by the development of a company Environmental, Safety and Health Policy statement and implementation of a work place safety plan and program.
Ac-ci-dent (ak-si-duhnt) noun • an unexpected unplanned, uncontrollable, and undesirable event.
Ac-ci-dent (ak-si-duhnt) 2. an unexpected unplanned, and undesirable event. accidents can be controlled
Basic Principles of Good Safety Management • Management Commitment • Documented Safety Philosophy • Safety Goals and Objectives • Committee Organization for Safety • Line Responsibility for Safety • Supportive Safety Staff • Rules and Procedures • Audits • Safety Communications • Safety Training • Accident Investigations • Motivation
Management/Leadership/Employee Involvement • We must promote the goal of ZERO INCIDENT PERFORMANCE through planning. • Safety Goals must be Communicated- They must be Realistic and they need to reflect the Safety Culture of your organization. • Your Safety Culture requires strong commitment from the top and Safety must truly be the #1 priority. It must become an integral part of your business and Safety must become EVERYONE’s responsibility.
Basic Safety Philosophy • Every Incident can be avoided. • No Job is worth getting hurt for. • Every job will be done safely. • Incidents can be managed. • Safety is Everyone’s Responsibility. • Safety/Best manufacturing practices • Safety standards, procedures and practices must be developed. • Training- Everyone must understand AND meet the requirements. • Working Safely is a Condition of Employment
Benefits of a Zero Incident Safety Policy • Safety standards are communicated to all employees. • Responsibilities for implementing standards are understood and accepted • Records will document how standards and Best Management Practices are met. • Internal management control • Cost Avoidance • Improved Quality • Better Productivity • Team Building • Unsafe behavior stands out • Unsafe behavior is Unacceptable • Safe Work is influenced through peer pressure • Consistent planning and task execution
Key Safety Principles • Working Safely is a condition of employment. • Each employee is expected to give consideration to the prevention of injury to self and co-workers. • Involvement and thinking of all people in the safety process is valued and expected. • Continual Improvement is the goal. • Individuals and teams must be recognized for their adherence to and advancement of safety.
Maintaining an Incident Free Environment • Shared Vision • Cultural Alignment • Focus on Incident Control • Upstream Systems • Feedback • Maintain the 4 – A’s • Cultural Change • Commitment
What a Safety Statement might look like(This is an EXERCISE) It is the intent of XYZ Industries to provide a safe work environment for all our workers and the wellness of our people, families and communities. We embrace healthy habits and behaviors. It is also our intent to properly manage any incidents that occur so as to minimize injury and other forms of loss. A well managed workplace safety program can benefit our company in countless ways. In order for XYZ Industries to achieve our goals, we have developed a safety program outlining our policies and procedures regarding employee health and safety. Each and every individual must become familiar with the program, follow and enforce the procedures, and become an active participant in this workplace safety program. While management (workplace safety officer and safety committee) will be responsible for developing and organizing this program, its success will depend on the involvement of each employee. We look forward to your cooperation and participation.
Implementing Your Workplace Safety Program Use of Inspections, surveillances, incident reporting, AHA’s Investigations, corrective actions, provide Safety leadership
Workplace Safety Program • Purpose- To reduce work-related injury & illness • Content- The program should include any policy, procedure, training that protects workers from work-related injury and illness while on the job. • Concerns- Promote & reward safe practices at work, reducing injuries & illnesses at work and eliminating fatalities at work.
Co-Workers Affect Each other’s Safety • Employees’ health and safety are affected not only by their own actions but by those of their co-workers. • Senior management must: Help employees manage hazards associated with their work (tasks or responsibilities). They must determine that employees are fit for work. Fitness involves: drug and alcohol issues, physical and emotional well being, and fatigue and stress.
Create Ownership of the program • Workers need to be involved in the creation and use of the workplace safety program for it to succeed. For Example: • Your company is responsible for supplying appropriate safety equipment, but employees are responsible for wearing personal protective equipment at the appropriate time and place. • Your company should provide training to help employees carry out their assignments, but workers are responsible for attending this training, asking questions and telling supervisors if they do not understand what is being explained.
Allow for Continuous Improvement In workplace safety and health, continuous improvement is about: • Seeking better ways to work • Measuring performance • Reporting against set targets • Evaluating compliance with procedures, standards and regulations • Understanding the causes of incidents and injuries and • Openly acknowledging and promptly correcting deficiencies.
Measuring Performance Performance can be measured by: • Reduction in frequency of lost-time injury • Reduction in frequency of medical treatment (beyond first-aid care) injury. • Reduction in number of sick days used • Lower workers compensation costs • Lower medical benefits payments ( doctor’s visits, prescription drugs)
OSHA (29 CFR,1970) covers nearly all employees • The general duty clause reads “Each employer shall furnish…a place of employment which is free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees.” • Need to communicate employees rights under the OSHA Act, including the right to file a complaint free from discrimination and explain the elements of a valid complaint.
Employees Rights under OSHA Act • Get training from your employer on chemicals you are exposed to during your work and information on how to protect yourself from harm. Employers must establish a comprehensive, written hazard communication program (Chemical Hazard Communication) Your employer must label chemical containers, make material safety data sheets with detailed hazard information available to employees, and train you about the health effects of the chemicals you work with and what the employer is doing and what you can do to protect yourself from these hazards. • The program must list the hazardous chemicals in each work area, how the employer will inform employees of the hazards of non-routine tasks (for example, the cleaning of reactor vessels), and hazards associated with chemicals in unlabeled pipes and how the employer will inform other employers at a multi-employer worksite of the hazards to which their employees may be exposed. • Get training from your employer on a variety of other health and safety hazards and standards that your employer must follow. These include lockout-tagout, bloodborne pathogens, confined spaces, construction hazards and a variety of other subjects. • Access relevant exposure and medical records. (29 CFR 1910.1020)
Employees Rights under OSHA Act • Request information from your employer on safety and health hazards in your workplace, chemicals used in your workplace, tests your employer has done to measure chemical, noise and radiation levels, precautions you should take and procedures to be followed if you or other employees are involved in an incident or are exposed to hazardous chemicals or other toxic substances. • Request copies of appropriate standards, rules, regulations and requirements that your employer should have available at the workplace. • Review the Log and Summary of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (OSHA 300) at a reasonable time and in a reasonable manner or have an authorized representative do so for you. (29 CFR 1904.7) • Access relevant exposure and medical records. (29 CFR 1910.1020)
Employees Rights under OSHA Act • Employers must inform you of the existence, location and availability of your medical and exposure records when you first begin employment and at least annually thereafter. Employers also must provide these records to you or your designated representatives within 15 working days of your request.When an employer plans to stop doing business and there is no successor employer to receive and maintain these records, the employer must notify you of your right of access to records at least 3 months before the employer ceases to do business. • Observe any monitoring or measuring of toxic materials or chemicals, as well as harmful physical agents, such as noise, and see the resulting records. If the exposure levels are above the OSHA limit, the employer must tell you what will be done to reduce the exposure -- the right to observe monitoring exists only where monitoring is performed pursuant to a standard that provides employees with the right to observe. • REQUEST ACTION FROM YOUR EMPLOYER TO CORRECT HAZARDS OR VIOLATIONS.
Employees Rights under OSHA Act • You may ask your employer to correct hazards even if they are not violations of specific OSHA standards. Be sure to keep copies of any requests you make to your employer to correct hazards. • FILE A COMPLAINT WITH OSHA if you believe that there are either violations of OSHA standards or serious workplace hazards. • File a complaint and request OSHA to conduct an inspection if you believe serious workplace hazards or violations of standards exist in your workplace. You can file a complaint online, in writing, by telephone or fax. If you want an OSHA inspector to come inspect your workplace, put your complaint in writing and send it to the OSHA office nearest you. (OSH Act, Section 8), (29 CFR 1903.11) • Request in your written complaint that OSHA keep your name confidential if you do not want your employer to know who filed the complaint. (OSH Act, Section 8) • BE INVOLVED IN OSHA'S INSPECTION of your workplace.
Employees Rights under OSHA Act • Have an authorized employee representative (such as a union representative) accompany the OSHA compliance officer during the inspection tour. (OSH Act, Section 8), (29 CFR 1903.8)The authorized employee representative has a right to accompany an OSHA compliance officer (also referred to as a compliance safety and health officer (CSHO) or inspector) during an inspection. Under no circumstances may the employer choose the workers' representative.Where there is no union or employee representative, the OSHA inspector must talk confidentially with a reasonable number of workers during the course of the investigation.Respond to questions from the compliance officer and tell the compliance officer about workplace hazards, particularly if there is no authorized employee representative accompanying the compliance officer on the inspection "walkaround." (OSH Act, Section 8)
Employees Rights under OSHA Act • You and your coworkers have a right to talk privately and confidentially to the compliance officer whether or not a workers' representative has been chosen.You may point out hazards, describe injuries or illnesses or near misses that resulted from those hazards and describe past complaints about hazards. Inform the inspector if working conditions are not normal during the inspection. Make sure that the inspector is aware if equipment has been shut down, windows opened or other conditions changed from normal. • FIND OUT RESULTS OF AN OSHA INSPECTION.Find out the results of OSHA inspections and request a review if OSHA decides not to issue a citation.If health hazards are present in your workplace, a special OSHA health inspection may be conducted by an industrial hygienist. This OSHA inspector may take samples to measure levels of chemicals or other hazardous materials.OSHA will let the employee representative know whether your employer is in compliance. The inspector also will gather detailed information about your employer's efforts to control health hazards, including results of tests your employer may have conducted.
Employees Rights under OSHA Act • GET INVOLVED in any meetings or hearings to discuss any objections your employer has to OSHA's citations or to changes in abatement deadlines.File a discrimination complaint (under Section 11(c) of the OSH Act) within 30 days if you are punished or discriminated against for exercising your safety and health rights or for refusing to work (not guaranteed by the OSH Act) when faced with an imminent danger of death or serious injury and there is insufficient time for OSHA to inspect. • REQUEST A RESEARCH INVESTIGATION ON POSSIBLE WORKPLACE HEALTH HAZARDS. • Contact the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to request a health hazard evaluation if you are concerned about toxic effects of a substance in the workplace.PROVIDE COMMENTS AND TESTIMONY TO OSHA during rulemaking on new standards.
Employees Rights under OSHA Act • File an appeal of the deadlines that OSHA sets for your employer to correct any violation in the citation issued to the employer. Write to the OSHA Area Director within 15 working days from the date the employer posts the notice requesting on extension of the abatement deadline if you feel the time is too long. (29 CFR 1903.17) • FILE A DISCRIMINATION COMPLAINT.File a discrimination complaint (under Section 11(c) of the OSH Act) within 30 days if you are punished or discriminated against for exercising your safety and health rights or for refusing to work (not guaranteed by the OSH Act) when faced with an imminent danger of death or serious injury and there is insufficient time for OSHA to inspect. • REQUEST A RESEARCH INVESTIGATION ON POSSIBLE WORKPLACE HEALTH HAZARDS. • Contact the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to request a health hazard evaluation if you are concerned about toxic effects of a substance in the workplace. • PROVIDE COMMENTS AND TESTIMONY TO OSHA during rulemaking on new standards.
Occupational Safety and Health Program Includes • COMPLIANCE WITH STANDARDS • ANNUAL OSH INSPECTIONS • ABATEMENT OF HAZARDS • PROCEDURES TO REPORT HAZARDS WITHOUT FEAR OF REPRISAL • OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH TRAINING • ACCIDENT REPORTING & INVESTIGATIONS • HEALTH SURVEILLANCE PROGRAMS • PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS
Management Leadership and Employee Involvement in S&H Issues • Your plan should include statements on the value of workplace safety and why management is committed to it. • A list of locations where written safety and health policies are posted for all employees to see. • A schedule of when and where regular meetings are held that address employee safety and health issues. • A stipulation that abiding by all safety and health rules is a condition of employment.
Workplace Safety Training • Staff member training and education about safety rules and their responsibilities in the workplace will pay off in a safer and healthier workforce. Remember: the health and safety of employees are affected not only by their own actions but by those of co-workers. • Ensure that everyone in the workplace is properly trained: managers, supervisors all full and part time and temporary workers. • Make sure no one does any job that appears unsafe.
Workplace Safety Training • Hold emergency preparedness drills for workers. Include nature of drill and expectations for employees during the drill. • Pay close attention to employees learning new operations to make sure they have the proper job skills and awareness of the hazards. Expectations must be provided in the trainings. • Supervisors and managers must be trained to recognize hazards and understand their responsibilities. Provide them with guidelines for reporting and correcting hazards.
Workplace Safety Training Supervisors and managers are: • Responsible for daily monitoring of workplace safety practices. • Accountable for mentoring, advising and counseling staff members who are not performing up to written policies and expectations. • Authorized to recommend a staff member for remedial training in a skill or on a machine or in attitude, as required.
Supervisors Responsibilities • SET EXAMPLE • KNOW, COMMUNICATE, AND ENFORCE STANDARDS • OBSERVE EMPLOYEES WORKING • ANALYZE & DISCUSS SAFETY HAZARDS • COMMUNICATE WITH YOUR EMPLOYEES • FOLLOW UP WITH YOUR EMPLOYEES • TRAIN ALL EMPLOYEES ON RULES & PROCEDURES • CONDUCT INSPECTIONS • ACKNOWLEDGE SAFETY BEHAVIOR • INVESTIGATE & REPORT ACCIDENTS • CORRECT UNSAFE UNHEALTHFUL CONDITIONS
Supervisors Responsibilities • INFORM ALL EMPLOYEES BEFORE THEIR INITIAL ASSIGNMENT OR WHEN A NEW HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL IS INTRODUCED INTO THEIR WORK AREA- (Hazardous Communication Standard) • TRAIN EMPLOYEES HOW TO: • IDENTIFY AND PROTECT THEMSELVES FROM CHEMICAL HAZARDS • RECOGNIZE THE PHYSICAL AND HEALTH HAZARDS OF CHEMICALS IN THEIR AREA • OBTAIN AND USE THE MSDS • DOCUMENT ALL TRAINING!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
8 BASIC HAZARD COMMUNICATION REQUIREMENTS LABEL CONTAINERS DO NOT REMOVE OR DEFACE LABELS INFORM AND TRAIN EMPLOYEES WRITTEN HAZCOM PROGRAM • DETERMINE HAZARDS • COMPOSE MSDS • PROVIDE CUSTOMERS WITH MSDS AND WARNING LABELS • KEEP MSDS ON FILE AND ACCESSIBLE
Take an Active part in Safety Activities • COMPLY WITH Occupational Safety & Health STANDARDS • REPORT WORKPLACE HAZARDS • REPORT TO SUPERVISOR ILLNESSES/ INJURIES OR PROPERTY DAMAGE RESULTING FROM INCIDENT – IMMEDIATELY!!
Take an Active part in Safety Activities • Actively participate in the daily safety meetings. • Supervision should encourage employees to lead in regular safety meetings. • Provide input in the development, review and suggestions of improvements to safe work procedures, AHA’s, SOP’s, and in incident report investigations, corrective actions and lessons learned, safety committee.
Take an Active part in Safety Activities • Safety must be everyone’s concern. In most small companies the role of a workplace safety coordinator can be incorporated into someone’s job description. In larger groups a safety director, officer or manager is usually in charge of the workplace safety program and appoints or sets up a safety committee to assist in implementing the safety program. • Committee’s can be made up of many different people with different resources and abilities.
Take an Active part in Safety Activities • Encourage employees to lead and participate in the Daily Safety Meetings. • Taking personal actions and working directly with supervisors to identify, control, or eliminate potential safety hazards. • Reporting of all injuries, near misses or accidents immediately. • Involvement in incident/accident investigations corrective actions and sharing Lessons Learned.
Accident/Incident InvestigationsToday we want to look at: • Goals of Accident Investigation • Securing the Accident Scene • Root-Cause Analysis • The importance of Investigative Interviews • Assisting in Accident Investigations • Reporting Near Misses • The Role of Policies, equipment and training on Accident Prevention.
REVIEW • All injuries can be prevented • Management is responsible for preventing injuries • Working safely is a condition of employment • Training employees to work safely is essential and everyone must be involved. • Prevention of personal injuries is good business (and good science!)
Four Elements Of a Workplace Safety Program • Element 1 - Management, Leadership and Employee Involvement. • Element 2, 3 – Worksite Analysis and Hazard Prevention and Control. • Element 4 – Safety and Health Training and Education
Element #2 - Worksite Analysis • Analyze all workplace conditions to identify and eliminate existing or potential hazards. • An outline of the procedure for reporting hazards • Perform analysis on a regular and timely basis. • Make certain all employees know and understand current hazard analysis for all jobs and processes. • Focus workplace design on all physical aspects of the work environment, including the following: • Size and arrangement of work space • Physical demands of the tasks to be performed • Design of tools and other devices people use • The fundamental goal of a workplace design is to improve people’s ability to be productive, without error or accident, for extended time periods. Proper workplace design improves both safety and productivity. • We want to eliminate hazards during the design or planning stages of a project • Review incident causes, inspection results to help identify trends • Knowledge of Emergency Response Plans and procedures and participation in drills
Identifying and Evaluating Potential Hazards SAFETY AUDITS / INSPECTIONS Purpose - Inspection of work areas and audits of safety programs are tools that can be used to identify problems and hazards before these conditions result in accidents or injuries. Audits also help to identify the effectiveness of safety program management and can be used as a guide to assure regulatory compliance and a safe workplace. Responsibilities • Management • Design and schedule audit and inspection procedures for all work areas, processes and procedures. • Conduct routine audits and inspections • Ensure audits are conducted by employees who understand the various safety programs and policies • Supervisors • conduct informal daily safety inspections and ensure all unsafe conditions are corrected • conduct documented weekly inspections and ensure all unsafe conditions are corrected Corrections • All safety deficiencies found during audits and inspections should be corrected as soon as possible. Documentation of corrections should be made on the audit or inspection sheet. And conditions that present a hazards are to be corrected or controlled immediately.
Identifying and Evaluating Potential Hazards SAFETY AUDITS / INSPECTIONS Types of Inspections • Supervisor & Management Daily Walk-through: this is an undocumented inspection that is made daily prior to startup and shift change to ensure the facility and equipment are in safe conditions for Employees. All noted unsafe areas are placed in a safe condition prior to Employees working in the area. • Weekly Supervisor Inspections are conducted and recorded with a Employee. This documented inspection provides a focus to ensure current hazard controls are still effective, equipment is in safe condition and safe work practices are in use. Discrepancies are listed on the inspection sheet, recorded on work orders for correction. The inspection sheet is forwarded to the Safety Manager for review and logging to track discrepancy correction. • Monthly Safety Committee Inspection. Each month members of the Safety Committee will tour the entire facility with the Safety Manager. This tour is to ensure Safety Committee Members are familiar with all areas of the operation. Record of problem areas, committee recommendations and deficiencies will be recorded and provided to management. • Noise Surveys are conducted at least annually, or whenever facility modifications are made that impact the ambient or specific work area noise levels, Noise surveys are conducted by qualified persons with calibrated instruments
Identifying and Evaluating Potential Hazards SAFETY AUDITS / INSPECTIONS Equipment Inspections Are conducted to ensure specific safety equipment is in good working order and will function when needed. Examples and frequencies are: • All construction equipment - Daily prior to use – (use form and file) • Sprinkler Inspection - Monthly • Boiler Checks- Daily, Weekly , Monthly, Yearly • Emergency Lighting Test - Monthly • Fire Extinguisher Inspections - Monthly • Safety Equipment Inventories - Monthly • Emergency Lighting 90 Min. Test - Semiannually • Respirator Inspections- Before / After Use (Monthly at a minimum) • Hand tools – Daily • Scaffolding – Daily