slide1 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Tomohiko Fukushima SOF Institute for Ocean Policy, Ship and Ocean Foundation, JAPAN PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Tomohiko Fukushima SOF Institute for Ocean Policy, Ship and Ocean Foundation, JAPAN

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 48

Tomohiko Fukushima SOF Institute for Ocean Policy, Ship and Ocean Foundation, JAPAN - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 111 Views
  • Uploaded on

Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica. Abundances of Megabenthic Organisms in Areas of Manganese Nodules, Cobalt-Rich Crust and Polymetallic Sulphide. Tomohiko Fukushima SOF Institute for Ocean Policy, Ship and Ocean Foundation, JAPAN. Workshop by the ISA

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Tomohiko Fukushima SOF Institute for Ocean Policy, Ship and Ocean Foundation, JAPAN' - ajaxe


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Abundances of Megabenthic Organisms in Areas of Manganese Nodules, Cobalt-Rich Crust and Polymetallic Sulphide

Tomohiko Fukushima

SOF Institute for Ocean Policy, Ship and Ocean Foundation, JAPAN

slide2

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Outline

1. Megabenthos distributions (abundances, faunal compositions, feeding habitats) ・・・・・.

2. Manganese nodule areas, Cobalt-Rich Crust areas and Polymetallic Sulphide areas  ・・・・・・・・.

3. Photo-transect methods (recommended by the environmental guideline for manganese nodules development) ・・・・・・・.

4. As results, simple outputs were obtained, however problems remained.

5. Take into considerations of the problems ・・・・・・.

For contractors ( also for the LTC) ・・・・

another quantitative methods should be considered,

or different types of a regulation is required.

slide3

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Contents

  • Introduction:
  • backgrounds, rationales
  • 2. Methods and Materials:
  • data source, data collection, study sites, rules of identification etc.
  • 3. Results and Discussion
  • characteristics of megabenthos distribution in each sites,
  • sediment property in each sites, duties of contractors,
  • 4. Conclusions
  • * Japanese Approach
slide4

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Introduction

slide5

Underwater oil production

TotalFinaelf website

Compliant Piled Tower

www.hess.com/gb260/bb.htm

Gas-hydrate

Scientific American 2000, 30

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Introduction

Human activities in deep sea

slide6

Manganese Nodules

(Metal Mining Agency of Japan)

Cobalt-Rich Crust

(Metal Mining Agency of Japan)

Polymetallic Sulphide

(Metal Mining Agency of Japan)

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Introduction

Deep-Sea Mineral Resources

slide7

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Introduction

Environmental Protection

1962 “Silent Spring”Rachel Carson

1966 “The Limits to Growth” Roman Club

1972 “Polluter-Pays Principle” OECD

1992 “United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: UNCLOS” adoption

1992 “Convention on Biological Diversity”

1994 International Seabed Authority

2000 Mining Code (by the ISA)

2001 Environmental Guideline (the ISA)

slide8

RV Challenger

Basket star

Agassiz, 1888

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Introduction

Environmental “Unknown World”

slide9

Introduction

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Abundances of deep-sea benthic organisms in a Pacific Ocean

after Fukushima, 2004

slide10

Introduction

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Corporative Research between SOPAC

and Metal Mining Agency of Japan

JAPAN

SOPAC

International Technical Cooperative Project

○Camera/video observations for exploration of mineral resources

○After finish the projects, photographic data can be used for the aims of Megabenthos observation.

slide11

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Introduction

In environmental study, include assessment studies, it is important to quantity the abundance of the community being studied. Deep-sea environmental studies is not exception.

However, our knowledge is so little that it is fair to call the deep sea areas an “unknown world”. Even the present, information regarding abundance is much less than that of shallower water.

Metal Mining Agency of Japan conducted a basic survey of exploration of mineral resources in the South Pacific Ocean for the SOPAC. Photographic data of exploration can be re-used for an environmental study.

In this presentation, abundances of megabenthic organisms in the areas of manganese nodules, cobalt rich crusts and polymetallic sulphides are compared. And the problems to estimate abundances of megabenthos are addressed.

slide12

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Materials and Methods

-photo transect methods-

Recommended by the environmental guideline prepared for

a manganese nodules development

slide13

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Materials and Methods

Still photographs / Continuous Deep- Sea Camera System (CDC)

Period: 1987- 1999

Presented by JOGMEC and SOPAC

slide14

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Materials and Methods

Continuous Deep- Sea Camera System (CDC)

slide15

http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/features/mapcenter

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Materials and Methods

Observation sites

slide16

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Materials and Methods

Table Number of Materials and covered area

slide17

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Materials and Methods

Identification

slide18

Xenophyophorea

Left: Tendal, 1972, Right: Blum, H.

White Spots

Motile fauna; Shrimp

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Materials and Methods

slide19

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Materials and Methods

Feeding Types

a. Suspension feeder:

Porifera, Cnidaria, Crinoidea, Ascidiacea

b. Deposit feeder:

Holothuroidea, Echinoidea, Hemichordata

c. Others:

Annelida, Mollusca, Asteroidea, Ohiuroidea,

slide20

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Materials and Methods

Sediment Types

a. Clay or Ooze (CO):

most of the part of seabed was covered by clay or ooze.

b. Poor Manganese Nodules area (PM):

less than 30% of manganese nodules.

c. Rich Manganese Nodules area (RM):

more than 30% of manganese nodules.

d. Rocky or Cobble area (CR):

rocks or cobbles are lying on the seafloor.

e. Crust area (CR):

covered by crust.

slide21

b Poor manganese nodules area (PM)

a. Clay and ooze (CO)

e. Crust area (CR)

d. Rocky or Cobble area (RC)

c. Rich Manganese Nodules area (RM)

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Materials and Methods

Sediment Types

slide22

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Results and Discussion

slide23

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Results and Discussion

Seafloor conditions of manganese nodules area

slide24

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Results and Discussion

Seafloor conditions of Cobalt Rich Crust area

slide25

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Results and Discussion

Seafloor conditions of Polymetallic Sulphides area

slide26

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Results and Discussion

Faunae

slide27

Eureteerectum (?)

Hyalonema sp

Semperella sp.

Caulophacus cf. elatus

Sericolophus sp. (?)

Hyalonema sp

Results and Discussion

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Phylum: Porifera (Sponges)

slide28

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Results and Discussion

Phylum: Cnidaria

Class: Actinaria

slide29

Acanthogorgia sp(?)

Calyptrophora sp (?)

Iridigirgia sp.

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Results and Discussion

Phylum: Cnidaria

Class: gorgonacea

slide30

Ellisella sp.

Cirrhipathes sp (?)

Virgularia sp.(?)

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Results and Discussion

Phylum: Cnidaria

Class: Pennatulacea

slide31

Proisocrinus sp (?)

Proisocrinus sp (?)

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Results and Discussion

Phylum: Echinodermata

Class: Crinoidea

slide32

Benthodytes typica (?)

Benthodytes sp(1)

Synallactesprofundi (?)

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Results and Discussion

Phylum: Echinodermata

Class: Holothuroidea

slide33

( burrowing sea urchin)

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Results and Discussion

Phylum: Echinodermata

Class: Echinoidea

slide34

( Brachyura )

( galathelid crab :Anomura)

Aristaemorph sp. (Macrura)

( galathelid crab :Anomura)

( Brachyura )

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Results and Discussion

Phylum: Arthuropoda

Class: Crustacea

slide35

Benthypteris grallator ( Tripodfish )

Typhlonus nasus

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Results and Discussion

Phylum: Vertebrata

Class: Osteichthyes

slide36

Freyella sp (eight arms)

Freyella sp (five arms)

Hymenaster sp.

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Results and Discussion

Phylum: Echinodermata

Class: Asteroidea (sea star)

slide37

Enteropneusta

Octopus (Mollusca, Cephalopoda )

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Results and Discussion

Others

slide38

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Results and Discussion

Abundance

31±23

(inds±SD)

193±329

(inds±SD)

426±418

(inds±SD)

slide39

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Results and Discussion

Feeding Habitat

21

33

37

29

60

65

34

14

8

slide40

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Results and Discussion

Summary

slide41

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Results and Discussion

Problems

Infauna / Protozoa:

By means of photo-transect methods, infaunal species and protozoans were ignored.

Survey site selection

In order to compare between distribution of megabenthos, different ways of the site selection are required.

slide42

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Recommended subjects by the environmental guideline

slide43

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Recommended subjects by the environmental guideline

slide44

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Recommended subjects by the environmental guideline

slide45

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Conclusions

1. Distributions of megabenthos in areas of manganese nodules, cobalt-rich crust and polymetallic sulphide were surveyed, by the photo transect methods, which was recommended by the environmental guideline prepared for manganese nodules development.

2. Although characteristics of megabenthos distributions in each site was understood in some extents, problems remained. Particularly to an accuracy of quantitative data sets.

3. According to the mining code, contractors must submitted reports on environmental baseline data and prediction of environmental impact resulting from mining. In addition, these results must be reviewed by the LTC.

4. If megabenthos data is included a regulation for CRC and PS development, intercariblational methods would be required for both contractors and the LTC.

slide46

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Supplement

Japanese Approaches for deep-sea mineral resources development

slide47

Workshop by the ISA

2004 September 6-10

Kingston Jamaica

Japanese Approach

Manganese nodule:1975 – 1999

exploration research1975 – 1999

environmental research 1990 - 1997

Cobalt Rich Crust: 1987- present

exploration research 1987- present

environmental research 1998-2001

Polymetallic Sulphide: 1985 - present

exploration research 1985 – present

environmental research not yet

slide48

The Fifth (2003) ISOPE

Ocean Mining Symposium

2003 September 15-19,Tsukuba, Japan

Thank you

for your kind attention