Unit 3. The World After the Fall of The Roman Empire. The Surviving Rome. Remember: split, west fell, east survived… Byzantium- would survive for 1,000 and preserve the glory of Rome- most spoke Greek A New Rome-
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The World After the Fall of The Roman Empire
Restoring the Roman Empire
The Code was the first step.
Captured many islands (Sicily) and Northern Africa
Short – lived… continued invasions of the West
Did hold off invasions to the Eastern Empire
Once just a small trade city
Most important leader: Ivan III first to call himself tsar
Goal to reunite all of Russia
Married Sophia- niece of the last two Byzantine Emperors
Brought much Byzantine culture to Moscow
Russia= isolation, no access to new ideas and inventions. Split up and became more agricultural.
China= moved capital, population declined- low pay for farmers
Russia= fused together the govt and church
China= United the dynasties, Increased trade and commerce, utilized the silk roads
Located between the declining Byzantine Empire and the Muslim Empires
Ghazis- warriors of Islam
Leader= Osman- followers called Ottomans
Military success based on use of gun-powder and cannons
Population decreased from over one-million to 50,000
Still controlled the Bosporus Strait and could cut off Ottoman access to Asia and the Balkans
Mehmed II (“Give me Constantinople”)
7-week siege (Carried boats over land), constant cannon fire, broke the wall and entered the city
The Rise of Islam
The Expansion of Islam
The Muslim Culture
Crossroads of Africa, Asia, and Europe
Location made trade a huge part of life for the people of Arabia
Oceans and seas AND land trade through caravan routes and the silk roads
Climate- deserts, Bedouins (nomads), clans, farming communities in oases- farming and market towns
Arabia’s most important city
Religion- location of the Kaaba
The Kaaba was an ancient shrine that held and honored many idols to the gods- many people visited the Kaaba to pay their respects to these gods
Commerce- being located on the Red Sea and land trade routes made this a major trade city
Birth- Mecca- orphaned at age 6, raised by grandfather and uncle with little education
Young man- worked on the caravan routes- married an older business woman, Khadijah
Revelations- a voice, he believed was Gabrielle, said Allah was the only true god and Muhammad was the last of his prophets
Islam: submission to the will of Allah
Muslim: one who has submitted- or the followers of Islam
Allah: the one and only true God
613- preaching belief in one god
Leaders in Mecca feared he would lead to the neglect of the other gods
Why would this be a problem?
People would stop traveling to the city to pay homage to the idols in the Kaaba- economically motivated!
After attacks on Muhammad’s followers he decided to leave Mecca
Traveled to a city 200 miles north
Renamed the city Medina
Gathered a large number of followers
Became a military and political leader
Returned to Mecca
630- 10,000 man army marched to Mecca
Destroyed the idols in the Kaaba
Took over the city and established it as an Islamic center as many citizens converted
Lived 2 more years and began unification of the Arabian Peninsula
There is one God.
There is good and evil
Each person is responsible for his/her actions
Faith- one God, Allah, Muhammad is his messenger
Prayer- 5 times each day toward Mecca
Alms- religious tax to benefit the poor, Muslims must support the less fortunate
Fasting- reminder that spiritual needs are more important than physical…. No eating during daylight hours for the month of Ramadan
Pilgrimage (hajj)- all Muslims should visit the holy city of Mecca- all wear the same garments to signify equality before Allah
Ulama- scholars who relate Islam to
Quran- holy book- written in Arabic- the only true language of Islam- and is the FINAL words of Allah
Sunna- Muhammad’s example or model for proper living
Shari’a- body of law the regulates family life, moral conduct, business and community relations
Allah is the same as their God
Jesus= prophet, not the Son of God
All believe in The Ten Commandments, Heaven and Hell and final judgment
All trace their ancestry to Abraham
Jews and Christians are called “people of the book”
Islamic law requires Muslims to extend religious tolerance to them
Caliph- successor or deputy
Caliphate- rule of a Caliph
Abu-Bakr was the first following Muhammad’s death
“Rightly guided Caliphs” were those who knew Muhammad and followed the Quran
As many tribes abandoned Islam following Muhammad’s death, they refused to pay tribute
The jihad (means striving) was instituted to justify the spread of Islam
An inner struggle against evil
An armed struggle against non-believers
Equality and hope in this world
Muslims did not have to pay a poll tax (for non-Muslims)
Allowed conquered people to practice their religion
Christians and Jews had special treatment as “People of the Book”
Several successors of Muhammad were assassinated and the elective system of choosing the Caliph was lost
The Umayyads took over
Moved the capital to Damascus
Muslims of Arab descent were angered
Umayyads surrounded themselves with wealth and ceremony- things not associated with Muhammad
Shi’a- “Party of Ali”
Sunni- followers of Muhammad’s example
Sufi- rejected the wealth and luxury of the Umayyad and lived a simple life of poverty and devotion
The Shi’a outwardly resisted the Umayyad rule and believe Caliphs must be descendent of Muhammad
Around 750 the Abbasids defeated the Umayyads
Moved the capital to Baghdad
Developed a bureaucracy
A treasury kept track of money flow
Taxed land, imports, exports, and non-Muslims’ wealth
Did not keep complete political control of the empire, so other Caliphates spread
Sea trade= Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean
Land trade= Silk Roads
Language of trade= Arabic, money was the Abbasid Dinar
Set up bands and letters of credit called sakk (Checks)
There are no priests b/c Muslims pray directly to Allah
Books translated into Arabic- helped preserve European culture
Al Razi- physician who wrote a Comprehensive Book (medical encyclopedia)
IbnSina-Wrote the Canon of Medicine is still one of the most important medical books ever written, and served as the medical authority throughout Europe for 600 years. Among the Canon's contributions to modern medicine was the recognition that tuberculosis is contagious; diseases can spread through water and soil; and a person's emotional health influences his or her physical health. I
Science= observation and experimentation to solve problems
Math is the basis of all knowledge “al jabr”
Astronomy- book, Optics- revolutionized ideas about vision and led to the development of telescopes and microscopes
IbnBattuta- Geographer who mapped northern Africa for the Muslims
Only Allah can create life images, so pictures are discouraged in art
Woodwork, glass, ceramics and calligraphy flourished
Architecture is the greatest example of cultural blending between Muslims, Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines
Ornate arches frame the doors of the Koutoubia, Marrakech, Morocco's oldest mosque. Completed in the 12th century, the Koutoubia served as a model for other mosques in the Muslim world.
Had more economic and property rights than other cultures of the time
Equal to men as BELIEVERS, but Islam teaches they be obedient and submissive
Today some Muslim cultures limit women’s rights (Iraq and Afghanistan are examples)
Located in Eastern Africa
Swahili- language blending African and Arabic
Geography- location near the Indian Ocean easily reached by Muslim traders
Traded gold and salt from Western Africa with Muslim traders
Also traded slaves- primarily females to Muslim Empire as house servants.
Muslims and Christians influenced African religion and culture
Syncretism= blending of African beliefs with Christianity and Islam
Knights and Chivalry Morocco's oldest mosque. Completed in the 12th century, the Koutoubia served as a model for other mosques in the Muslim world.
This church in Rottingdean, East Sussex, is nearly 1000 years old. It was made of stone and built to last. It would have been much larger than a Medieval peasant's cruck house.
The Power of the Church
This entrance to Amiens Cathedral in France shows just how vast cathedrals were. The doors alone are over 20 feet tall, while the 'porch' which surrounds it makes this doorway nearly 60 feet tall; taller than many houses now.
“There are by two powers by which this world is chiefly ruled: the sacred authority of the priesthood and the authority of kings.”
What does this quote mean to you?
A Spiritual Revival in the Church
Chapter 14 Section 1
Jerusalem in the Middle Ages years old. It was made of stone and built to last. It would have been much larger than a Medieval peasant's cruck house.
Vezalay years old. It was made of stone and built to last. It would have been much larger than a Medieval peasant's cruck house.
The town and monastery reached the height of their glory when in Vézelay St. Bernard called for the Second Crusade, in an oration heard by King Louis VII of France and a great number of nobles on March 31, 1146. Vézelay was also the site of the rendezvous between kings Philippe IV of France and Richard I of England as they embarked on the Third Crusade.
Changes in Medieval Society
Chapter 14 Section 1
Switch to Horsepower years old. It was made of stone and built to last. It would have been much larger than a Medieval peasant's cruck house.
In the past - farmers used oxen (not real fast)
Switched to horses that could do 3 times as much work in the same amount of time.
Harness was improved
Three Field System
In the past – used a two-field system, where they only used 50% (1/2) of their land.
The three-field system allowed farmers to use 67% (2/3)of their land, thereby producing more.A Growing Food Supply
Definition – years old. It was made of stone and built to last. It would have been much larger than a Medieval peasant's cruck house. organization of individuals in the same business who work together to improve economic and social conditions for it members
Functions of the Guild
Set standards of quality
Carried goods to local regionsThe Guilds
Examples of Guilds years old. It was made of stone and built to last. It would have been much larger than a Medieval peasant's cruck house.
To be a member
Started as an APPRENTICE
Moved to a JOURNEYMAN
Become a MASTER
Expansion of TRADE and BUSINESS
Fairs and Trade years old. It was made of stone and built to last. It would have been much larger than a Medieval peasant's cruck house.
Took place mainly in towns
Peasant from manors would travel to buy, sell, and trade
Items: cheese, bacon, wine, glass, salt, leather, dyes, knives, ropes, honey
Crusades opened up trade routes
Business and Banking
Due to the mass travel or merchants and traders checks and credit became a means of moving money.
Lending also became prevalentCommercial Revolution