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Chapter 9 . Networking and Telecommunication. Topics. Linking Up: Network Basics Electronic Mail, Teleconferences, and Instant Messages: Interpersonal Computing Converging Communication Technologies: From Messages to Money. Linking Up: Network Basics.

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Chapter 9 l.jpg

Chapter 9

Networking

and

Telecommunication


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Topics

  • Linking Up: Network Basics

  • Electronic Mail, Teleconferences, and Instant Messages: Interpersonal Computing

  • Converging Communication Technologies: From Messages to Money


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Linking Up: Network Basics

  • A computer network is any system of two or more computers that are linked together.

  • How do networks impact systems?

    • People share computer hardware, thus reducing costs

    • People share data and software programs, thus increasing efficiency and production

    • People work together in ways that are otherwise difficult or impossible


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Basic Network Anatomy

  • The three basic components of a network:

    • Hardware

    • Software

    • People

  • Direct Connection--one of many computers linked in an office

  • Remote Access--computer linked to a network through a phone line, television cable system or satellite link


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The Network Interface

  • Anetwork interface card(NIC) permits direct network connection

  • It adds an additional serial port to the computer

  • The network interface card controls the flow of data between the computer’s RAM and the network cable.


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Communication á la Modem

  • Amodemis a hardware device that connects a computer’s serial port to a telephone line (for remote access).

  • May be internal on the system board or external modem sitting in a box linked to a serial port.

  • Modem transmission speed is measured in bits per second (bps) and generally transmit at 28,000 bps to 56.6K bps


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Conversion of Signals

Computers send digital signals. The modem (modulator/demodulator) converts the digital signals to analog so that the message can be transmitted through telephone lines.


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Conversion of Signals

The modem (modulator/demodulator) converts the analog signals back to digital signals that are understood by the computer


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Faster Modem Alternatives:Broadband Technologies

  • DSL - Digital Subscriber Line

    • Uses standard phone lines

    • Makes use of unused frequencies in phone lines

    • Speed dependent on distance from main office

  • Cable Modems

    • Uses cable television networks

    • Makes use of unused channel frequencies

    • Speed dependent on number of users on network at a given time


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Networks Near and Far

Local-area network (LAN)

  • Computers are linked within a building or cluster of buildings.

  • Each computer and peripheral is an individual node on the network.

  • Nodes are connected by cables which may be either twisted pair (copper wires) or coaxial cable.


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Networks Near and Far

Wide-area network (WAN)

  • A network that extends over a long distance.

  • Each network site is a node on the network.

  • Data transmitted over common pathways called abackbone.


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Wide-Area Networks

  • Made up of LANs linked by phone lines, microwave towers, and communication satellites.

  • Bridges, routers, and gateways are hardware devices that pass messages between networks.


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Communication Software

  • Protocol - set of rules for the exchange of data between a terminal and a computer or between two computers

  • Communication softwareestablishes a protocol that is followed by the computer’s hardware


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Communication Software

  • Many forms:

    • Network operating system(NOS)- handles communications between many workstations

    • Client/server model- one or more computers act as dedicated serves and all the remaining computers act as clients

    • Peer-to-peer model- every computer on the network is both client and server

    • Many networks arehybrids, using features of the client/server and peer-to-peer models


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Client/Server Model

Server software responds to client requests by providing data

Client software sends requests from the user to the server


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The Network Advantage

  • Why do people use networks?

    • To share computer resources (hardware and software)

    • To support working together in new and different ways

Lotus Notes is a groupware application that facilitates information sharing and workgroup collaboration.


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E-mail Mail, Teleconferences, and IM: Interpersonal Computing

  • Electronic mail, teleconferencing and instant messaging allow communications between two or more people.

  • Meetings can be held in real-time (synchronous) or delayed (asynchronous)

  • Chat rooms are examples of synchronous communications; bulletin boards are examples of asynchronous communications.


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The Postal Alternative Computing

  • E-mail is fast.

  • E-mail doesn’t depend on location.

  • E-mail facilitates group communication.

  • E-mail messages are digital data that can be edited and combined with other computer-generated documents.


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Advantages of E-mail and Teleconferencing Computing

  • On-line communication is less intrusive.

  • On-line communication allows time shifting.

  • Teleconferences and e-mail promotes teleworking.

  • Teleconferences and e-mail emphasize the message over the messenger.


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On-line Issues for E-mail and Teleconferencing Computing

  • Vulnerable to machine failures, network glitches, human errors and security

  • Threat to privacy

  • E-mail forgery

  • Information overload

  • Missing “human” elements of communication


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Converging Communication Technologies: From Messages to Money

  • On-line Information Services

  • Fax Machines and Fax Modem

  • Voice Mail and Computer Telephony

  • Global Positioning System

  • Video Teleconferencing

  • E-Money


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Physical Media for Networks Money

Networks are built on physical media.

  • Twisted pair (Category 5)

  • Twisted pair (Traditional)

  • Coaxial Cable

  • Fiber optic

  • Wireless/infrared

  • Wireless/radio

    What affects network performance?

  • Bandwidth and maximum operating distance

“Never in history has distance meant less.”

Alvin Toffler


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Bandwidth Money

  • The amount of information that can be transmitted in a given amount of time

  • Impacted by:

    • Physical media that make up the network

    • Amount of network traffic

    • Software protocols of the network

    • Type of network connection


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Fiber Optic Cables Money

  • Fiber optic cables are replacing aging cooper lines with high-capacity fiber optic cables.

  • They use light waves to carry information at blinding speeds.

  • A single fiber optic cable can transmit half a gigabit (500 million bits) per second, replacing 10,000 standard telephone cables.

  • Data is transmitted more accurately and reliably.


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Digital Communication Comes Home Money

  • Digital communication lines will radically change services to our homes.

  • Multi-person video phone conversations, universal e-mail, customized digital newspapers, automatic utility metering and unlimited entertainment options