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please read this before using presentation
Please read this before using presentation
  • This presentation is based on content presented at the 2007 Mines Safety Roadshow held in October 2007
  • It is made available for non-commercial use (eg toolbox meetings) subject to the condition that the PowerPoint file is not altered without permission from Resources Safety
  • Supporting resources, such as brochures and posters, are available from Resources Safety
  • For resources, information or clarification, please contact:

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toolbox presentation road safety on mine sites part 2 traffic safety on mining operations

Toolbox presentation:Road safety on mine sites – part 2Traffic safety on mining operations

October 2007

road safety on mine sites toolbox series
Road safety on mine sites toolbox series
  • Road safety issues on WA mine sites
  • Traffic safety at mining operations

(Author: Damir Vagaya, ARRB Group)

presentation objectives
Presentation objectives
  • Recogniseand understand some of the traffic hazards present at mining operations, including processing plants, that are often overlooked
  • Guidance on how to deal with these hazards
presentation overview
Presentation overview
  • Risk
  • Roads
  • Pedestrians
  • Delineation
  • Traffic signs
  • Parking
  • Remedial actions
introduction to arrb group
Introduction to ARRB Group
  • Established in 1960 by Australian and New Zealand Road Authorities as the Australian Road Research Board
  • Publicly owned research and consulting not-for-profit organisation with a major focus on increasing traffic safety

research | consulting | technology

introduction cont
Introduction cont.
  • ARRB has been assisting the resource industry by:
    • conducting site-based road safety audits
    • auditing heavy vehicles routes (public roads)
    • developing traffic management plans
    • undertaking crash investigations
  • Presenter: Traffic safety engineer with mining background and experience in traffic risk assessments
why are road safety and traffic management important
Why are road safety and traffic management important?
  • Form part of an overall risk management strategy
  • Minimise injury and property damage
  • Ensure people travel safely while at work and on their journeys to and from work
  • (Reduce downtime, cost and inefficiency)
regulatory framework
Regulatory framework

Mines Safety and Inspection Act 1994

  • Promote and improve the safety and health of persons at mines
  • Onus is on the employer to ensure that, as far as is practicable, employees are not exposed to hazards or do not do hazardous work without appropriate personal protective equipment and equipment as is practicable to protect them against those hazards, without any cost to the employees

Each person who works on a mine is responsible for:

  • their own safety
  • the safety of others affected by their actions or inactions

A motor vehicle used as part of work is considered to be a workplace

what is risk
What is risk?

RISK = Exposure x Likelihood x Severity

Exposure = traffic volumes

Likelihood = length x general & relative risk x influencing factors

Severity = historical average of a crash type’s severity (consequences)

how can we reduce risk
How can we reduce risk?
  • Reduce exposure
    • Access control
  • Reduce likelihood
    • Road design (alignment, cross section, etc.)
    • Maintenance and repair of roads
    • Training / permits
    • Segregation between vehicle types
  • Reduce severity
    • Speed management
    • Vehicles standards (ROP, FOP, load restrains, etc.)
    • Clear zones and barriers
road design
Road design
  • Alignment
  • Width
  • Gradients
  • Profile
  • Construction practices
  • Unsealed roads
    • Competency and operator training (design manuals, standards, practices)
    • Lifecycle economics
    • Drainage
    • Dust suppression
intersection design
Intersection design
  • Sight distances / visibility (consideration for different vehicle types and surface conditions, remove road side objects obscuring visibility)
  • Alignment (preference to intersections at right angles)
  • Right of way controls (Give Way / Stop signage)
  • Conspicuousness (advance warning signs, lighting, hazard board markers at the terminating leg)
  • Preference for “T” junctions over four-way crossovers
right of way rules
Right-of-way rules
  • Consistent with normal road conditions and Australian road rules
  • Intersections should be posted with “Give way” or “Stop” signage
  • No differentiation between vehicle types
  • Only exception — emergency vehicles
  • Alternative right of way arrangements require a risk assessment
pavement design and road surface condition
Pavement design and road surface condition
  • Poor pavement design practices lead to cracks, rutting, potholes and other failures
  • Roads should be kept free of loose material
  • Regular / as-required clean ups (sweeping)
clear zones
Clear zones
  • Horizontal width of space on the side of a road that should be free of hazards (i.e. should be safely traversable by errant vehicles)
  • Width depends on the speed and geometry (1 metre to about 3 metres)
  • Where clear zone cannot be achieved:
    • Hazards should be signed and marked
    • Protected by barriers
safety barriers
Safety barriers
  • Can become hazards themselves
  • Should be installed to applicable standards and specs (e.g. minimum effective length 28 metres, 600 mm deflection)
  • A list of approved W-beam barriers for use in WA can be obtained from Main Roads WA
  • No barrier has been tested on heavy vehicles
  • Should have approved end treatments
  • Reflectors
separation of heavy and light vehicles
Separation of heavy and light vehicles

Pedestrians, heavy vehicles and light vehicles should be separated wherever possible (or interaction minimised)

  • Physical separation – (semi)permanent barriers, separate road networks, parking facilities
  • Time separation – management process aimed at restricting access to certain vehicles into certain areas at certain times (i.e. no deliveries during shift change hours, activities restricted to night shifts where traffic volumes are generally lower)

Common problems

  • Glaring
  • Dark spots
  • Inadequate lighting of pedestrian facilities
  • Inadequate lighting of parking facilities

Regular inspections and reporting

pedestrians desire lines and route planning
Pedestrians — desire lines and route planning
  • Walking is always present and safe walking should be encouraged
  • Identify main desire lines and match with appropriate infrastructure (footpaths, crossings)
  • Separation and protection from vehicles
  • Monitor usage
  • 1.5-2.0 metres wide
  • Ideally raised (kerbed)
  • If level with roads, mark footpaths with paint
  • Provide lighting
  • Marked crossings (zebras) only at locations with high pedestrian activity. Most crossings should be unmarked but signposted
footpaths cont
Footpaths cont.
  • No parking on footpaths allowed
  • Protect pedestrians with safety guardrail
  • Pedestrians should be encouraged to use footpaths
  • Assess and address tripping hazards
  • (High visibility) PPE should be worn at all times
delineation colour coding
Delineation — colour coding
  • Delineation of areas of specific activities (walkways, laydown, working, hazards, etc.)
  • Should be standardised and consistent across operations
delineation guide posts
Delineation — guide posts
  • Delineate the road formation
  • Red on the left, white on the right
  • Installation:
    • Roads: 150 metres on straight section, two pairs should be visible at all times (depends on the speed), about 1.5metres from road formation
    • Haulage roads: 50 metres on flat roads, and 30 metres on curves; 1.5-2 metres height, 0.5-1 metres from edge of road
  • Auditing of guide post condition (cleaning, repairing, replacing)
traffic signs30
Traffic signs
  • Principles for installation:
    • Familiarity
    • Consistency
    • Meet expectation
    • Relevancy
    • Follow relevant standards (AS 1742, Main Roads WA guidelines, Road Rules)
  • Reflectivity (AS 1906 as a minimum, high reflectivity materials for dusty conditions)
  • Use Size B or Size C signs
use of non standard signs
Use of non-standard signs
  • Road users respond best to standard traffic controls
  • Minimise the use of non-standard signs
    • Graphical representation
    • Up to 5 words on up to 5 lines
    • Font size depends on speed
  • Replace non-standard signs
  • Implement an approval system for installing signs
issues with traffic signs
Issues with traffic signs
  • Issues
    • Faded, damaged, non-reflective signs
    • Dirty
    • Obscured by vegetation
    • Missing
    • Small size
    • Obsolete
    • Signage clutter
  • Implement a regular monitoring and maintenance program
speed signs
Speed signs
  • Should be in multiplies of 10 km/h
  • Installed on the left side of the road
    • Ideally on both sides of the road
  • On long stretches of road, repeater signs installed at spacings of 500 metres
speed management
Speed management
  • Appropriate speed limits
    • Consistency
    • Practicality
    • Relevancy
  • Limit the number of speed limits to three or four (e.g. 10, 20, 40 and 60 km/h)
  • Prepare speed zone maps
speed management cont
Speed management cont.
  • Monitoring and enforcement
  • Consideration for changing environment
    • Unsealed roads – dust, rain, wind
    • Always drive to conditions
parking facilities
Parking facilities
  • Parking permitted in designated areas only
  • Constructed on flat areas
    • Alternatively use wheel block, V drains, etc.
  • Separation between light vehicles, heavy vehicles and pedestrians
  • Provision for pedestrian corridors
  • Lighting as appropriate
  • Reverse parking might not be the best solution for all locations
    • Install protection for objects or pedestrians behind vehicles
remedial actions39
Remedial actions

Increase site safety awareness culture

  • Hazards, incidents and near misses reporting
  • Documenting
  • Undertake remedial actions and provide feedback


  • Internal (operation / organisation)
  • External

- Road safety auditing (Austroads)

remedial actions cont
Remedial actions cont.

Regular reviews of traffic management documentation

Change management

  • Communication of change



Damir Vagaja

Manager Mining and Resources

ARRB Group Ltd191 Carr Place

Leederville WA 6007

 08 9227 3024or 0404 057 066