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Inclusive Placement Opportunities for Preschoolers: A Systems Approach to Preschool Inclusive Practices PowerPoint Presentation
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Inclusive Placement Opportunities for Preschoolers: A Systems Approach to Preschool Inclusive Practices. A project of the Virginia Department of Education and the Training and Technical Assistance Centers of Virginia.

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slide1
Inclusive Placement Opportunities for Preschoolers:

A Systems Approach to Preschool Inclusive Practices

slide2

A project of the Virginia Department of Education and the Training and Technical Assistance Centers of Virginia

what kinds of behaviors would we see in classrooms where
What kinds of behaviors would we see in classrooms where:
  • No expectations are posted
  • Children don’t know how to clean up materials
  • There are large open spaces
some research findings
Some research findings

Children in poverty heard 250,000 words per year

2x as many prohibitive as affirmative statements heard

80 to 90% heard is negative

Children in “professional homes” heard 4 million words per year

6 to 9 affirmatives to every prohibitive heard

80 to 90% heard is positive

(Hart & Risley, 1995)

more findings
More findings
  • If children do not develop appropriate social skills by 3rd grade, they are at much greater risk of dropping out of school, committing crimes and eventually being incarcerated
activity what strategies could change these statistics
ActivityWhat strategies could change these statistics?
  • In groups, share strategies that you have used with your students to address challenging behaviors
what we know works
What we know works!
  • Direct instruction of appropriate behaviors and social skills
  • Use of behaviorally appropriate role models
  • Use of concrete visual examples of positive interactions and play
  • Consistent, frequent reinforcement of pro-social behaviors
  • Incidental teaching and reinforcement of appropriate behavior
  • Redirection of anti-social skills

(Kayes, 1995)

mind map
Mind map

Positive discipline

gallery walk
Gallery walk

New idea

New idea

Positive discipline

New idea

New idea

children are positively disciplined when
Children are positively disciplined when:
  • They are shown positive alternatives rather than just told “no”
  • They are encouraged to think of alternatives to the misbehavior
  • Their display of appropriate behavior is recognized and rewarded
children are positively disciplined when12
Children are positively disciplined when
  • They see how their actions affect others
  • They are respected
  • The expectations are fair, simple and consistently enforced
children are inconsistently disciplined when
Children are inconsistently disciplined when:
  • Different limits are set on different days by the same person
  • Different adults set different limits
  • No limits are set
  • Limits are able to be changed
  • Adult expectations are too high or low
positive discipline is used when
Positive discipline is used when:
  • Adults use a plan to:
    • Respond quickly and calmly, using few words
    • Reduce the misbehavior
    • Replace the misbehavior by teaching an alternative, appropriate skill that serves the same purpose as the misbehavior
steps in using positive discipline step 1
Steps in using positive disciplineStep 1
  • Identify what the child does well and likes to do
  • Complete a reinforcement inventory
step 2
Step 2
  • Identify the behavior(s) of concern
    • List all behaviors of concern
    • Identify whether each behavior is inappropriate or challenging
activity
Activity
  • Turn to your neighbor and discuss what you consider inappropriate behaviors and what you consider challenging behaviors that preschool children may display
inappropriate and challenging behaviors
Inappropriate and challenging behaviors
  • Inappropriate:
    • Is abusive to materials
    • Interferes with acceptance by or positive interaction with others
    • Is not improving or is getting worse
    • Is mildly harmful to the child or others
    • Prevents learning from occurring
  • Challenging:
    • Involves extreme property damage
    • Is extremely harmful to the child or others

A disability is not the cause of a challenging behavior — there is always a reason

activity19
Activity
  • Identify child
  • Complete steps 1 and 2
step 3
Step 3
  • Identify the possible functions for the behavior(s)
    • What could be contributing to behaviors?
    • Gather information about:
      • Medications
      • Medical conditions (e.g., asthma or allergies)
      • Sleeping patterns
      • Eating patterns
      • Learning style
gallery walk21
Gallery walk

New idea

New idea

Positive discipline

New idea

New idea

children are positively disciplined when22
Children are positively disciplined when:
  • They are shown positive alternatives rather than just told “no”
  • They are encouraged to think of alternatives to the misbehavior
  • Their display of appropriate behavior is recognized and rewarded
children are positively disciplined when23
Children are positively disciplined when
  • They see how their actions affect others
  • They are respected
  • The expectations are fair, simple and consistently enforced
children are inconsistently disciplined when24
Children are inconsistently disciplined when:
  • Different limits are set on different days by the same person
  • Different adults set different limits
  • No limits are set
  • Limits are able to be changed
  • Adult expectations are too high or low
positive discipline is used when25
Positive discipline is used when:
  • Adults use a plan to:
    • Respond quickly and calmly, using few words
    • Reduce the misbehavior
    • Replace the misbehavior by teaching an alternative, appropriate skill that serves the same purpose as the misbehavior
steps in using positive discipline step 126
Steps in using positive disciplineStep 1
  • Identify what the child does well and likes to do
  • Complete a reinforcement inventory
step 227
Step 2
  • Identify the behavior(s) of concern
    • List all behaviors of concern
    • Identify whether each behavior is inappropriate or challenging
activity28
Activity
  • Turn to your neighbor and discuss what you consider inappropriate behaviors and what you consider challenging behaviors that preschool children may display
inappropriate and challenging behaviors29
Inappropriate and challenging behaviors
  • Inappropriate:
    • Is abusive to materials
    • Interferes with acceptance by or positive interaction with others
    • Is not improving or is getting worse
    • Is mildly harmful to the child or others
    • Prevents learning from occurring
  • Challenging:
    • Involves extreme property damage
    • Is extremely harmful to the child or others

A disability is not the cause of a challenging behavior — there is always a reason

activity30
Activity
  • Identify child
  • Complete steps 1 and 2
step 331
Step 3
  • Identify the possible functions for the behavior(s)
    • What could be contributing to behaviors?
    • Gather information about:
      • Medications
      • Medical conditions (e.g., asthma or allergies)
      • Sleeping patterns
      • Eating patterns
      • Learning style
activity32
Activity
  • Turn to a different partner and discuss what you see as “reasons” young children display the inappropriate or challenging behaviors you listed in a previous activity
pick a student
Pick a student
  • Use your fostering self-control plan to discuss and identify Step 1 and Step 2
functions of behaviors
Functions of behaviors
  • To obtain a person, place or thing
  • To escape a person, place or thing
the pay off determine what the child gets out of misbehaving
The pay-off:Determine what the child gets out of misbehaving
  • What one thing could adults do to most likely make the behavior(s) occur?
  • What kind of response does the child get when he or she misbehaves?
step 4
Step 4
  • Select a preventative/non-directive approach to solve the problem
be preventative
Be preventative
  • Change the environment to prevent:
    • Climbing
    • Running
    • Overcrowding
    • Lengthy clean-up times
    • Accessing “hands-off” materials
    • Power struggles
    • Rules from being broken
be preventative38
Be preventative
  • Cue the child using verbal, model, physical, props or other prompts
  • Ignore the inappropriate behavior
  • Redirect or distract from potential problems
  • State the rule before it is broken
  • Give two appropriate alternative choices before the inappropriate behavior occurs
  • Comment on good behavior
be non directive
Be non-directive
  • Identify the problem
  • Identify the consequences
  • Ask a “What can you do?” question
  • Remind children of rules after they are broken
  • Give two appropriate choices
  • Provide a quiet space
step 5
Step 5
  • Develop a theory about why the child misbehaves. Ask:
    • How does the child communicate?
    • What’s been done in the past in response to the challenging behavior and what was its effect on the behavior?
observe the child and record
Observe the child and record
  • When does the problem occur?
  • Where does the problem occur?
  • Who is present when the problem occurs?
  • What happens right before the problem occurs?
  • What happens after the problem occurs?
activity video clip
ActivityVideo clip
  • Watch video clip of “Dumbo”
  • Use the ABC chart to determine what is happening
back to your student
Back to your student
  • Identify the function of each behavior
  • Select a preventative and a non-directive strategy to use with each behavior
teaching a new behavior
Teaching a new behavior
  • What can the child do or be taught to do that could serve the same function as the challenging behavior?
  • Alternative behavior must be as efficient and effective as the challenging behavior
taking a closer look
Taking a closer look…
  • Changes in children come about only when adults change their own behavior
teaching alternative skills
Teaching alternative skills
  • Is the new skill you are teaching developmentally and individually appropriate?
  • Reinforce at a high rate when first teaching the new behavior
    • Natural, social, material and edible
activity alternative skills
Activity Alternative skills
  • In your groups, determine what you think an alternative skill is for the behavior of concern you identified.
alternative replacement skills
Alternative (replacement) skills
  • Replace inappropriate or challenging behavior
  • Taught directly to child
  • Challenging or inappropriate behavior cannot be displayed when alterative skill is being performed
  • Efficient and effective as inappropriate or challenging behavior
alternative skills for linda
Alternative skills for Linda
  • Teach the use of visual schedules
  • Teach the use of a break card
  • Teach the use of props and transitional items
  • Teach “first” sand table, “then” circle
  • Teach how to regulate sensory needs
step 6
Step 6
  • Develop a systematic plan with the three Rs to:
    • Respond – make everyone’s responses consistent
    • Reduce – prevent or stop the challenging behavior
    • Replace – teach alternative skills for the child to use instead of the challenging behavior
final step
Final step
  • Reconsider the plan
    • At least 4 weeks after beginning the plan, have the team meet to discuss:
        • Has behavior decreased?
        • Is the child using new behaviors?
        • If yes, begin undoing the plan.