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What am I?. Knock, knock . . . Dear John . . . Once upon a time . . . (CNN) -- U.N. Security Council members will resume closed-door discussions Tuesday of U.S.-proposed sanctions against North Korea over its claimed nuclear test. Roses are red, violets are blue . . .

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what am i
What am I?
  • Knock, knock . . .
  • Dear John . . .
  • Once upon a time . . .
  • (CNN)-- U.N. Security Council members will resume closed-door discussions Tuesday of U.S.-proposed sanctions against North Korea over its claimed nuclear test.
  • Roses are red, violets are blue . . .
  • Sale!! Save 50% or more, NO Shipping!!!
  • Turn in your Bibles this morning to . . .
genre identification

Genre Identification

The Law of Moses

definitions
Definitions
  • Literary Genre: a category or kind of writing characterized by a particular form and/or content
  • Prose: communication with language that lacks stylized structure
  • Poetry: communication with highly stylized language marked by parallelism, figures of speech and terseness
the genre of law
The Genre of Law
  • Introductory Comments:
    • The OT contains over 600 commandments that the Israelites were expected to keep as evidence of the loyalty to God.
    • The Law was written around 1440 BC.
    • Only four of the thirty-nine books of the OT contain these laws: Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.
    • The OT law is called by the Jews “The Torah.”
    • The OT law is an unified whole.
slide6
Form
  • The Decalogue: The Ten Commandments are the crux of the law. They represent the heart of the content of the Law. Some suggest that all other elements of the law are an exposition of the Ten Commandments.
  • Apodictic Law: These are direct commands that usually begin with, “Thou shall” or “Thou shall not.”
  • Casuistic Law: This is case law. These set a specific situation from which apodictic law proceeds. Many times casuistic law provides multiple scenarios and options for penalties. Many of these in the OT law have comparisons within other legislation of the era. But even amongst these, there are significant differences. Compare the following with Exodus 20:13; 21:12, 27; Deut 23:15-16; 24:16.
function
Function

The Old Testament law is a covenant.

  • A covenant is a means of establishing, expressing, and defining a relationship between two parties. The word occurs 238 times in the OT. There are covenants established to protect water wells, boundaries, and legal negotiations.
  • An OT covenant had six parts to it: preamble, prologue, stipulations, witnesses, sanctions, and a document clause.
    • Preamble: identified the parties – “I am the Lord your God” (Exo. 20)
    • Prologue: brief historical marker – “I brought you out of Egypt”
    • Stipulation: individual laws
    • Witnesses: God, Israel, nature (Exo 19; Deut 4:26, 30:19)
    • Sanction: blessings and curses (Deut 28-33)
    • Documents Clause: regular review of stipulation (Deut 31:9-13)
  • The OT law provides the stipulations for the relationship between God and Israel.
function1
Function
    • The OT law provides the stipulations for the relationship between God and Israel.
  • The Old Covenant is not the testament/covenant for believers today.
    • The OT law was written for the contractual relationship between God and Israel.
    • The New Testament believer is never envisioned in the covenant, nor is he encouraged to live by it.
function2
Function
  • Some stipulations of the Old Covenant have clearly not been renewed in the New Covenant.
    • All ritual law ended at the cross of Jesus Christ. God Himself tore the veil of the Holy of Holies to denote the ending of the priestly system.
    • All civil law is restricted to the citizens of ancient Israel, of which no one currently is included.
function3
Function
  • Part of the Old Covenant is reiterated in the New Testament.
    • The moral law of God which predated the Mosaic covenant is still in effect post-Mosaic covenant.
    • Many of these are heightened within the NT commands.
  • All of the Old Testament law is still the Word of God for us even though it is not still the command of God to us.
  • Only that which is explicitly reiterated from the Old Testament law can be considered part of the New Testament “law of Christ”.
function4
Function
  • Case Study: Deut 15:12-17 - What can we learn?
    • Key Questions:
      • What did the text mean to the original readers?
      • What does the text teach us about ourselves (humanity)?
      • What does the text teach us about God?
      • What does the text teach us about our relationship with God?
      • What does the text teach us about our relationship with each other?
      • What does the text teach us about justice?
      • To which of the TC’s does this refer?
case study
Case Study
  • Slavery on the OT is not similar to contemporary slavery models.
  • God loved slaves.
  • In the OT slaves could be better off as slaves, than as free men.
  • The slave owner did not really own slaves. The slave was not considered property.
  • Slavery provides an important picture of the NT concept of redemption and bondservice.
do s and don ts for reading the ot law
Do’s and Don’ts for Reading the OT Law
  • Do see the Old Testament law as God’s fully inspired word for you.
  • Don’t see the Old Testament law as God’s direct command to you.
  • Do see the Old Testament law as the basis for the Old Covenant, and therefore for Israel’s history.
  • Don’t see the Old Testament law as binding on Christians in the New Testament except where specifically renewed.
do s and don ts for reading the ot law1
Do’s and Don’ts for Reading the OT Law
  • Do see God’s justice, love, and high standards revealed in the Old Testament law.
  • Don’t forget to see that God’s mercy is made equal to the severity of the standards.
  • Do see the Old Testament law as a generous gift to Israel, bringing much blessing when obeyed.
  • Don’t see the Old Testament law as a grouping of arbitrary, annoying regulations limiting people’s freedom.
do s and don ts for reading the ot law2
Do’s and Don’ts for Reading the OT Law
  • Don’t see the Old Testament law as complete. It is not technically comprehensive.
  • Do see the Old Testament law as a paradigm---providing examples for the full range of expected behavior.
  • Don’t expect the Old Testament law to be cited frequently by the prophets or the New Testament.
  • Do remember that the essence of the Law (Ten Commandments and the two chief laws) is repeated in the prophets and renewed in the New Testament.