Media Penetration in Africa. Radio and Development in Africa, A Concept Paper. Prepared for the International Development
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Radio and Development in Africa, A Concept Paper. Prepared for the International Development
Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada by Mary Myers. August 2008 (revised March 2009). Available from http://www.idrc.ca/uploads/user-S/12581214041Radio_and_Development_in_Africa,_concept_paper.pdf
High degree of achievement
Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. UN agreement based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, accepted by most Democratic countries. Outlines that:
1. Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference.
2. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice.
3. The exercise of the rights provided for in paragraph 2 of this article carries with it special duties and responsibilities. It may therefore be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary:
(a) For respect of the rights or reputations of others;
(b) For the protection of national security or of public order (ordre public), or of public health or morals.
Alexis de Tocqueville (1835)
“Only a newspaper can put the same thought at the same time before a thousand readers... A newspaper is not only able to suggest a common plan to many men; it provides them with the means of carrying out in common the plans that they have thought for themselves.”
Amartya Sen. Development as Freedom, 1999
Active political opposition (in democratic systems) and a FREE PRESS is the only mechanism to prevent famines (1999:181)
Politically competitive environment:
Coyne and Leeson, Media, Development and Institutional change, 2009
Political scientist Barry Weingast: “a central step in the creation of limited government is that citizens... construct a mechanism that solves the coordination problem” (1995: 17)
KENYA: Joshua Arap Sang on Kenya TV
The Hague Justice Portal profile of Joshua arap Sang says:
“the material presented to them by the Prosecutor provided grounds to believe
that Sang placed Kass FM at the disposal of the network, advertising the
organisation’s meetings and using his on-air position to spread hate messages
and incite violence by broadcasting false news regarding alleged murders of Kalenjins.”