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Metal Detection - The Basics. North America Fortress Technology Inc. Toronto, Canada Phone: (416) 754-2898 Fax: (416) 754-2976 Email: [email protected] Europe Fortress Technology (Europe) Ltd. Banbury, UK Phone: +44 (0) 1295 256266 Fax: +44 (0) 1295 265277

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metal detection the basics
Metal Detection - The Basics

North America

Fortress Technology Inc.

Toronto, Canada

Phone: (416) 754-2898

Fax: (416) 754-2976

Email: [email protected]

Europe

Fortress Technology (Europe) Ltd.

Banbury, UK

Phone: +44 (0) 1295 256266

Fax: +44 (0) 1295 265277

Email: [email protected]

Fortress Technology Ltd. www.fortresstechnology.com

contents
Contents

1. Metal Detection - The Basic Principles

1.1 Theory of Operation

1.2 Product Effect and Phasing

1.3 Metal Free Area

1.4 Sensitivity

1.5 Types of Metal

1.6 Shapes and Orientation

2. Testing

2.1 Test Sample

2.2 Frequency

2.3 Procedure

2.4 Records

3. Sources of Interference

4. Applications

4.1 Conveyor (End of Line)

4.2 Gravity

4.2 Pipeline

5. Good Practice Guidelines

Fortress Technology Ltd. www.fortresstechnology.com

balanced coil
Transmitter Coil

Receiver 1

Receiver 2

Balanced Coil

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balanced coil4
Receiver 2

Transmitter Coil

Receiver 1

Balanced Coil

Fortress Technology Ltd. www.fortresstechnology.com

product effect
Conductive Scale

Magnetic Scale

Product Effect

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phasing
Phasing

Resistive (Conductive) R

Stainless Steel (1 mm) I.e 304. 316

Non Ferrous (1 mm) I.e. Copper, Brass, Ali.

Ferrous (1 mm) I.e. Iron Steel

0

Reactive (Magnetic) x

Fortress Technology Ltd. www.fortresstechnology.com

phasing with product
Phasing With Product

Resistive (Conductive) R

Conductive/ Wet Product (meat, cheese, moist bread)

Stainless Steel (1 mm) I.e. 304. 316

Non Ferrous (1 mm) I.e. Copper, Brass, Ali

Ferrous (1 mm) I.e. Iron, Steel

Reactive (Magnetic) x

Fortress Technology Ltd. www.fortresstechnology.com

metal free area
Total Metal Free AreaMetal Free Area

Fortress Technology Ltd. www.fortresstechnology.com

sensitivity
Signal Size

Metal Size

3

1

2

Aperture Size

1 2 3

Position in Aperture

Sensitivity

Fortress Technology Ltd. www.fortresstechnology.com

types of metal
Types of Metal

2.0mm Fe

2.0mm Fe

2.0mm Non Fe

3.0mm Non Fe

4.0mm SS

3.0mm SS

Dry Product Mode

Wet Product Mode

(Example of Ratios ONLY)

Fortress Technology Ltd. www.fortresstechnology.com

shapes orientation of metal
Travel

A

B

C

Shapes & Orientation of Metal
  • Ferrous Wires:
  • A - Easiest position, biggest signal.
  • B, C - Hardest Position, smallest signal.
  • Non-Ferrous and Stainless Steel Wires:
  • B, C - Easiest position, biggest signal.
  • A - Hardest position, smallest signal.

Fortress Technology Ltd. www.fortresstechnology.com

typical guidelines for sensitivity
Dry Product

Ferrous & Non Ferrous

Wet Product

Ferrous Non Ferrous

Aperture Height

< 0.8 -1.0 mm

< 1.5 mm

< 2.0 mm

Up to 50 mm (2 In)

< 1.0 -1.2 mm

< 2.0 mm

< 2.5 mm

Up to 125 mm (5 In)

< 1.2 - 1.5 mm

< 2.5 mm

< 3.0 mm

Up to 200 mm (8 In)

Typical Guidelines for Sensitivity

Fortress Technology Ltd. www.fortresstechnology.com

detector performance
5. Metal Free Belt

1. Metal Free Area

6. Roller Isolation

2. Non-Metallic

Slider Bed

3. Clearance

4. Foot Isolation

Detector Performance
  • Isolated Rollers - prevent loops
  • High Quality Belt - Metal Free, Carbon Free, Interlocked finger
  • Splice, or Plastic Modular Belt (White or Natural)
  • Low vibration and Static
  • Adequate metal free area

Fortress Technology Ltd. www.fortresstechnology.com

typical metal detector conveyor reject reject options
Air Blast

Retracting Belt

Reject

Reject

Reject

Flap Gate

Photo Eye

Reject

Reject

Typical Metal Detector Conveyor Reject Reject Options

Diverter

Pusher

Fortress Technology Ltd. www.fortresstechnology.com

drop through gravity metal detector
Product Freefall Start Point (Test Piece Access)

Drop Height

Distance

D1

Plastic Pipe Selection

Detector

D2

Overall Length

Detector To

Valve Distance

Reject Output

Good Product Output

Drop Through / Gravity Metal Detector

Fortress Technology Ltd. www.fortresstechnology.com

drop through gravity metal detector16
Drop Through / Gravity Metal Detector
  • A drop through / gravity detection system is ideally suited to inspecting dry, free flowing products such as :
  • Grains, flours, cereals
  • Rice, nuts, sugar
  • Plastic pellets and flakes
  • The following critical factors must be known when designing a
  • successful drop through / gravity detection system:
  • Flow rate
  • Bulk density
  • Free fall distance
  • Pipe size
  • Space available
  • Testing procedure (insert + recovery)

Fortress Technology Ltd. www.fortresstechnology.com

pipe system
D1

Non Metallic Pipe Section

Detector

Reject Valve

Good

Product

Flow

Rejected

Product

Pipe System

Fortress Technology Ltd. www.fortresstechnology.com

pipeline metal detector
Pipeline Metal Detector
  • A pipeline inspection system is ideally suited to inspecting liquid,
  • slurries or paste products that can be pumped through.
  • Typical pipe products would include:
  • Sauces
  • Dairy products
  • Meat slurries
  • Juices etc.
  • The following critical factors must be known when designing a
  • successful pipeline detection system:
  • Pipe I.D.
  • Pipe clamp connection style (tri-clamp, I-line etc)
  • Product flow rate (GMP)
  • Product viscosity
  • Product temperature range
  • Product pressure
  • Expected cleanup procedures (wash down, pipe pig, etc.)

Fortress Technology Ltd. www.fortresstechnology.com

metal detection system sensitivity q a test form
Metal Detection System Sensitivity Q&A Test Form

Location

Date & Time

Samples Used

Results

(signals)

Corrective Action

Fortress Technology Ltd. www.fortresstechnology.com

good practice
Good Practice

1. Prevention

1.1 Training

1.2 Controlled Maintenance

1.3 Regular Inspection & Good Housekeeping

2. Sensitivity

2.1 Identify Standards for products (maximise sensitivity)

2.2 Use Security methods (passwords)

3. Testing

3.1 Determine Frequency

3.2 Create Test packs

3.3 Document

4. Rejected Product

4.1 Isolate & screen

4.2 Repeat 3 times / change orientation

4.3 Investigate – trained personnel / off line

4.4 Identify potential source& resolve

5. Maintain Records

5.1 Test / Production / Maintenance

Fortress Technology Ltd. www.fortresstechnology.com

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