AG History and Missions 100 Years of God’s Goodness and Blessing
I Cor. 1: 26-31 For ye see your calling, brethren, how that not many wise men after the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble, are called: But God hath chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the wise; and God hath chosen the weak things of the world to confound the things which are mighty; And base things of the world, and things which are despised, hath God chosen, yea, and things which are not, to bring to nought things that are: That no flesh should glory in his presence.
Early Revivalists and the Spirit • John Wesley: 1766, Doctrine of Christian Perfection as a second experience following salvation. • American Holiness Movement: 1830s, Built on Wesley– the “Double Cure”. Terms: “Baptism in the Holy Spirit” and “The Tongue of Fire.” Believers encouraged to Tarry (Luke 24:49). Legalism. Rock of Ages, cleft for me, let me hide myself in thee; Let the water and the blood, from thy wounded side which flowed, Be of sin the double cure;save from wrath and make me pure.
Varied Definition of Spirit-Baptism • Reformed Calvinist: equated with salvation • Revivalists: Second Work of Grace • Charles Finney (1792-1875): empowerment for ministry • Keswick Convention: 1875 in England rejected Wesleyan perfection for “full consecration” and the “fullness of the Spirit” • DL Moody: emphasized Spirit baptism for empowerment for service
Keswick Convention • W. E. Boardman, American Presbyterian: “The Higher Christian Life” in 1859 • Joined by Robert Persall-Smith in 1873 in England • Keswick meetings organized by Cannon T.D. Harford-Battersby and Robert Wilson- June 1875 • “All One in Christ Jesus” was the motto • Distanced itself from Wesleyan “entire sanctification”
The Healing Movement (Ja. 5:15) • Dorothea Trudel (1813-1862” in Switzerland: Divine Healing, Healing hospice called the “Faith Home.” • John Alexander Dowie 1847-1907 and Maria Woodworth-Etter (1844-1924) prayed for sick in their meetings • A.B. Simpson (1843-1919): Healing purchased in Christ’s redemption therefore healing from every disease • A.J. Gordon (1836-1895): God is sovereign over healing
Civilizing vs Evangelizing • Emphasis on Christian Civilization from the early 1800s and onward: building schools and developing institutions to help civilize the savage heathen. • Empire Building and Civilization • Edward Irving: 1824, London Missionary Society missionaries should follow Jesus’ command in Matthew 10:9-10. • World War I. 1914 End of Great Century of Missions • The Rise of Premillennialism
Faith Missions in China 1865 - Present
A. T. Pierson (1837-1911)A Founding Father of Faith Missions • Presbyterian pastor strongly influenced by Moody and other revivalists • Spokesman for Foreign Missions • Supported the ministry of women and laity • Premillennial expectation and Missions • The “Watchword” • Editor of The Missionary Review of the World
J. Hudson Taylor and the Beginning of Faith Missions • Arrived in Shanghai in Sept. 1853 • Trips up the Yangtze • Chinese costume • Married Maria Dryer of on Jan. 20, 1858
“A million people a month are dying without God” The Establishment of the CIM in 1865 • Structured upon the personality and experiences of Hudson Taylor • Committed to the interior provinces of China and the evangelism of her 400 billion souls • Interdenominational and headquartered in China • Appeal to the working class laity, thus opening the door for those not ordained • Personal financial support based on Faith • Identification with the Chinese– including dress
Charles Spurgeon, following the Taylors’ visit to England: “China, China, China is now ringing in our ears in that special, peculiar, musical, forcible, unique way in which Mr. Taylor utters it.” (Tucker: 193)
Jonathan Goforth:A Missionary Innovator • Presbyterian missionary to China, Manchuria and Korea • Sailed to China in 1888 • “China’s most outstanding evangelist” • “Open-House” Evangelism • Reliance upon the Holy Spirit’s leading, power and demonstration
Hudson Taylor’s Advice to Goforth Upon hearing that Goforth was assigned to Henan province in central China, he wrote the new missionary a note: “Brother, if you would enter that province, you must go forward on your knees.”
Faith Missions: Born in Revival • The Revival of 1859/ 1873– emphasis on prayer and evangelism • Revival Fires in Ulster and Wales: Spurgeon and Moody • The Welsh Revival of 1904 • Prophetic, Brethren and Holiness Movements • Topeka in 1901 and Azusa Street in 1906
Reflections on Faith Missions • George Müller, A. T. Pierson and Premillennialism • Pierson 1886: "Our Lord's Second Coming a Motive for World-Wide Evangelization" • Obedience to the Great Commission • The spiritual yearnings of people like Pierson, Gordon, Palmer, Finney and others of the late 19th century set the stage and prepared hearts for the revivals leading up to and Pentecostal response from God in 1906. • Early rejection became at least lukewarm acceptance in areas following the 1930s and the Shandong Revival. • Radical Evangelicals (Gary McGee)
Characteristics of Faith Missions • Emphasis on eschatology and Premillennial urgency • Providential Provision • Guidance and power of the Spirit • Divine Healing and Miracles • Prophecy • Increased role for women, laity, students and Blacks • Volunteer missionaries • Bible Schools and Training • The Baptism in the Holy Spirit and tongues
A. B. Simpson (1843-1919) and the CMA • 1877: Expressed a desire to be a missionary to China • 1882: Founder of New York Gospel Tabernacle • 1883: New York Missionary Training College • 1887: Founding of CMA (CIM Pattern) • Contributions: • United Bible School training, the fellowship movement and missions; adding independent congregations • Impacted Pentecostal Missions
William W. Simpson • Pioneer Missionary of the CMA to Tibet from 1892 • Served as Dean for the AG missionary training school: Bethel Bible Training School in Newark, NJ • Returned to China in 1918 with the AG Mission • Gave the AG its Chinese name: 神教会
Charles Parham and Topeka 1901 “More than anyone else, he forged the movement which has mushroomed in the second half of the twentieth century . . . [and] infused the movement with a zeal of missions” (Goff: 163-164).
Division of Sanctification • Reformed Tradition: Sanctification began at conversion • Holiness: Wesleyan Second Blessing • Parham (Defacto leader 1901-1906) • Salvation by Grace Alone • Separate from Conversion: Sanctification • Baptism in the Holy Spirit
Seymour (con’t.) • The Apostolic Faith: “The world seems ripe for Pentecost in all lands and God is sending it.” • The Outpouring of the Spirit and the Latter Rain: Spirit Baptism and the End-Time Harvest • Xenolalia or Glossilalia • Synan: Azusa Street: “the birthplace of global Pentecostalism”
Becoming an Apostolic Faith Missionary 1. Identify the language “given” at Spirit Baptism 2. Call to Missions? 3.Ready To Go? 4. Funded and Sent "One-Way Ticket Missionaries"
The First Pentecostal Missionaries to China • Mr. and Mrs. T. J. McIntosh– Hong Kong 1907 • Alfred and Lillian Garr– Hong Kong 1907 • Rosa Pittman and May Law– Hong Kong with the Garrs • Paul and Nellie Bettex– Guangzhou • Antionette Moomau– Shanghai 1907 • Bernt and Magna Berntsen (Scandinavia)– Shangdong 1908 The Assemblies of God Church in Mukden, Manchuria (Shenyang) 1935
Mok Lai Chi • Garr’s Translator • Received Baptism and left American Board • Founded China’s first Pentecostal newspaper: Pentecostal Truths
Key People • A. B. Simpson (1843-1919): Closer walk with Christ and Evangelize world in power of Spirit. CMA Founder • John Alexander Dowie (1847-1907): Return of Apostolic Christianity, Healing and End Times • Maria B. Woodworth-Etter (1844-1924): Modeled Women in Ministry, Slain in the Spirit • Frank W. Sanford (1862-1948): Restoration of NT Church, Baptism and Gifts of the Spirit, Evangelization
Other Pentecostal Leaders • Ivey G. Campbell (1874-1918): The American Mid-west • Elizabeth V. Baker (1849-1915): Founded Rochester Bible Training School in NY. Students became leaders in the AG. Received Baptism in 1907. • Gaston B. Cashwell (1862-1916): Borrowed money to get to Los Angeles. Troubled by blacks, but asked Seymour to pray for him. Great revival in NC.
“The Finished Work of Calvary” • William H. Durham (1873-1912), Chicago • Opposed Sanctification as a Second Work of Grace believing it to be a part of salvation • Sermon: The Finished Work of Calvary • Great Impact on the AG First General Council in Hot Springs, Arkansas in April 1914
Faith-Life Missionaries • First Pentecostal Missionaries: Mary Johnson and Ida Andersson– South Africa in 1904 • 4 Types of Missionaries among 200 who served by 1910: • Ill-prepared • Hardy Souls • Veteran Missionaries • Bible Institute Graduates
Indigenous Church • Henry Venn (Anglican, Church Missionary Society) (1796-1873) and Rufus Anderson (Congregationalist, American Board) (1796-1880). In reaction to mission’s paternalism. • Self Governing • Self Supporting • Self Propagating
John Nevius(1829-1893) Presbyterian 40-years in China • Christians should continue to live in their neighborhoods and pursue their occupations, being self-supporting and witnessing to their co-workers and neighbors. • Missions should only develop programs and institutions that the national church desired and could support. • The national churches should call out and support their own pastors. • Churches should be built in the native style with money and materials given by the church members. • Intensive biblical and doctrinal instruction should be provided for church leaders every year.
Cooperation and Not • Comity (Working together in cooperation across denominational and doctrinal barriers) • Bible Translation, Educational endeavors, Relief • Conferences in 1860, 1885, 1900 • 1910 World Missionary Conference in Edinburgh Scotland • World Council of Churches and Division