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The People of the Sunnah. HIST 1007 10/2/13. What is Islam?. What is Islam?. God Everything else. Islam during the Time of the Prophet. Is there even anything called Islam? The Believers Movement Umma – Muhajirun , ansar , “converts,” allies, and tribal chiefs

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the people of the sunnah

The People of the Sunnah

HIST 1007

10/2/13

what is islam1
What is Islam?

God

Everything else

islam during the time of the prophet
Islam during the Time of the Prophet
  • Is there even anything called Islam?
  • The Believers Movement
  • Umma – Muhajirun, ansar, “converts,” allies, and tribal chiefs
  • Accept the Qur’an as revelation, Muhammad as

the messenger of God,

and the umma as

the community of true

believers.

after the prophet
After the Prophet
  • Sahaba – Companions of

the Prophet

  • Tabi`un – Muslims of the

generation after

Muhammad’s death

  • Qurra’ – Teachers of the

Qur’an

  • Not formal institutions
  • Teaching of Islam by those

considered knowledgeable.

al-BaqiCemetary, Medina, before and after

destruction by Wahhabists and Saudi government

in 1925

do you need to define islam
Do you need to define Islam?
  • Conquest and expansion
  • Political debates (Kharijis and Shi’ites)
  • Connection with other traditions
    • Jewish (isra’iliyyat)
    • Christian (Syriac)
    • Zoroastrian
    • Hellenistic
    • Persian
    • Arabian
kalam theology
Kalam- Theology
  • Kharijites (657-present) – Anyone who fails to follow God’s command is not a true Muslim. Free will.
  • Qadaris (late 7th – early 9th centuries) – An unrighteous ruler should abdicate or be deposed. Free will.
  • Mu`tazilis (8th-10th centuries) – Sinful Muslims are neither true Muslims nor non-believers. Rationalists.
  • Murji`a – Anyone who professes to be a Muslim is a Muslim. Supporters of non-Arab converts.
kalam
Kalam
  • Free will, predestination, and God’s attributes
  • Mu`tazili – God is unique, uncreated, and his attributes are neither physical nor literal.
  • Qur’an is created, not part of God’s essence like Christian Logos.
  • Men have free will, God does

not create evil deeds nor punish

for predestined deeds.

Symbol of neo-Mu`tazilites

mu tazilites
Mu`tazilites

1. Tawhid – Unity of God

2. `Adl – God is just

3. Reward and punishment

belong in the afterlife.

  • A sinner is neither a true

Muslim nor an apostate.

5. Muslims are responsible for promoting the good and suppressing evil.

ahl al hadith
Ahl al-hadith
  • Traditionists
  • God cannot be known by reason, only by revelation.
  • Qur’an and example of Prophet Muhammad as found in hadith.
  • God’s attributes must be real!
  • God is absolutely omnipotent and inscrutable.
  • All actions are the result of God.
abu al hasan al ash ari d 936
Abu al-Hasan al-Ash`ari (d. 936)
  • A happy medium…
  • Theological tenets derived from tradition can be supported by rational arguments.
  • The Qur’an exists in the divine essence…
  • But in the form of letters and words it is created…
  • al-Maturidi (d. 944): You can know God through reason, not just revelation.
kalam1
Kalam

Mu`tazilite – understand through reason

Traditionists – understand through revelation

- the Qur’an is uncreated

Mu`tazilite – people have free will

- the Qur’an is created

Traditionists – God is all powerful

kalam2
Kalam

Ash`arites – Can be understood through revelation and explained through reason.

- essence of the Qur’an

Ash`arites – the precise letters and words of the Qur’an are created

why would the caliph care
Why would the Caliph Care?
  • Mihna: Inquisition begun by al-Ma’mun in 833
  • Supports Mu`tazilite opinion
  • Tries to ban traditionalists from holding office
  • Is the Qur’an created or uncreated?
  • Ahmad b. Hanbal(780-855): Leading hadith scholar of Baghdad, critical of `Abbasid excess
  • Caliphs unable to enforce theological stances
slide15
Fiqh
  • Islamic jurisprudence
  • Largely built on older traditions in dialogue with Qur’an and hadith
  • Qadi: Judge, by late 8th

century, only `ulama’

  • Mufti: Legal authority
  • Ra’y: Personal

judgment of a qadi

  • Ra’y can set precedent
schools of law
Schools of Law
  • Regional study circles
  • Mecca, Medina, Kufa, Basra, Baghdad, and Fustat
  • Sharing teachings of notable scholars creates legal networks
  • As circles become more focused, they become legal schools with defined views and curriculum
  • Madhhab: School of Law
  • Hanafis: First legal school
    • based in Kufa and Basra on the

teachings of Abu Hanifa (d. 767)

    • Established precedents, ra’y,

and Islamic norms

schools of law1
Schools of Law
  • Maliki: legal tradition of Medina
    • Malik b. Anas (d. 795), Muwatta’
    • Qur’an, example of the Prophet (sunna), judgment of the sahaba, and traditions of Medina
  • Shafi`i:
    • Abu `Abdullah

al-Shafi`I (767-820)

    • Qur’an, sunna,

consensus (ijtima’), and

analogy (qiyas)

growing importance of qur an and hadith
Growing Importance of Qur’an and Hadith
  • Hanafis: law based on precedent and legal judgments
  • Malikis: traditions of the sahaba and people of Medina along with Qur’an and hadith
  • Shafi`i: consensus and analogy in interpreting the Qur’an and hadith
  • Hanbalis: Qur’an and hadith only, rejection of consensus and analogy
hadith collections
Hadith Collections
  • SahihBukhari, Muhammad al-Bukhari (d. 870)
  • Sahih Muslim, Muslim b. al-Hajjaj (d. 875)
  • Sunan al-Sughra, al-Nasa`I (d. 915)
  • Sunan Abu Dawood, Abu Dawood (d. 888)
  • Jami al-Tirmidhi, al-Tirmidhi (d. 892)
  • SunanibnMajah, IbnMajah (d. 887)
  • All six collections of sound

hadith were collected by

Persians.

Tomb of al-Bukhari in Samarqand, Uzbekistan