IC Evolution (1/3) • SSI – Small Scale Integration (early 1970s) • contained 1 – 10 logic gates • MSI – Medium Scale Integration • logic functions, counters • LSI – Large Scale Integration • first microprocessors on the chip • VLSI – Very Large Scale Integration • now offers 64-bit microprocessors, complete with cache memory (L1 and often L2), floating-point arithmetic unit(s), etc.
IC Evolution (2/3) • Bipolar technology • TTL (transistor-transistor logic) • ECL (emitter-coupled logic) • MOS (Metal-oxide-silicon) • although invented before bipolar transistor, was initially difficult to manufacture • nMOS (n-channel MOS) technology developed in 1970s required fewer masking steps, was denser, and consumed less power than equivalent bipolar ICs => an MOS IC was cheaper than a bipolar IC and led to investment and growth of the MOS IC market.
IC Evolution (3/3) • aluminum gates are replaced by polysilicon by early 1980 • CMOS (Complementary MOS): n-channel and p-channel MOS transistors => lower power consumption, simplified fabrication process • Bi-CMOS - hybrid Bipolar, CMOS (for high speed) • GaAs - Gallium Arsenide (for high speed) • Si-Ge - Silicon Germanium (for RF)
VLSI Benefits • Smaller Size • Higher Performance • Higher Functionality • Higher Reliability • Lower Power Consumption • Design Security
VLSI Design Styles (1/2) • Full-Custom ASICs • Some (possibly all) logic cells are customized and all mask layers are customized • Semicustom ASICs • All logic cells are predesigned (defined in cell library) and some (possibly all) of the mask layers are customized • Types: Standard-cell based and Gate-array-based ASICs
VLSI Design Styles (2/2) • Programmable ASICs • All logic cells are predesigned and none of the mask layers are customized • Types: PLD (Programmable Logic Device) like SPLD, CPLD, and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array)
Full-custom ASICs (1/3) • Engineers design some or all of the logic cells, circuits, or layout specifically for one ASIC • Full-custom ICs are the most expensive to manufacture and to design • Manufacturing lead time (the time it takes just to make an IC – not including design time) is typically 8 weeks • When does it make sense? • there are no suitable existing cell libraries available • existing logic cells are not fast enough • logic cells are not small enough • logic cells consume too much power • ASIC is so specialized that some circuits must be custom designed • Trends: fewer and fewer full-custom ICs are being designed (excluding mixed analog/digital ASICs)
Full-custom ASICs (2/3) • Each circuit element carefully “handcrafted” • Huge design effort • High Design & NRE Costs • High Performance • Until Recently, Unthinkable Expensive Development Risky Special Skills Lack of Manpower • Justified in Only the Most Desperate Cases • optimize design, gain maximum speed, area • usually for large volume product, Typically used for high-volume applications
Full-custom ASICs (3/3) • All layers are optimized for an embedded system’s particular digital implementation • Placing transistors • Sizing transistors • Routing wires • Benefits • Excellent performance, small size, low power • Drawbacks • High NRE cost (e.g., $300k), long time-to-market Vahid & Givargis
Semi-Custom • Design with Pre-Designed Building Blocks (Standard Cell) - Low Level Design +Minimized Needed IC Design Skills • Uses Pre-Implemented Layout (Gate Array) +Pre-Characterized and Tested +Minimize Tooling - Density Sacrifice
Standard-Cell-Based ASICs (1/5) • Cell-Based ASIC (CBIC) uses pre-designed cells (AND, OR gates, multiplexers, flip-flops, ...) • Standard-cell areas are built of rows of standard cells • Standard-cell areas can be used in combination with larger pre-designed cells (microcontrollers, or even microprocessors), known as mega-cells A cell-based ASIC (CBIC) die with a single standard-cell area combined with 4 fixed blocks
Standard-Cell-Based ASICs(2/5) • Characteristics • The layout of individual gates (standard cells) is pre-designed and stored in a library. • custom blocks can be embedded; ASIC designer defines only the placement of the standard cells and the interconnect in a CBIC • standard cells can be placed anywhere on a silicon =>all mask layers of a CBIC are customized • manufacturing lead time is 8 weeks • The chip layout can be created automatically by CAD tools because of the regular arrangement of logic gates (cells) in rows.
Standard-Cell-Based ASICs (3/5) • Advantages • designers save time, money, and reduce risks using a predesigned, pretested, and precharacterized standard-cell library • standard cells in the library are constructed using full-custom;each standard cell can be optimized individually(for example, to maximize speed, minimize area, etc); • Disadvantages • time or expense of designing or buying the standard-cell library • time needed to fabricate all layers of the ASIC for each new design
Standard-Cell-Based ASICs(4/5) • Standard-cells are designed to fit horizontally together to form rows • Internal construction of a cell • - 25 microns wide (lambda is 0.25) • AB: abutment box • BB: bounding box • Power supplies: VDD, GND • Each different shaded and labeled pattern represents a different layer • Connections: A1, B1, Z
Standard-Cell-Based ASICs (5/5) • Interconnections between cells use spaces (called channels) between rows • 2 separate layers of metal interconnect (metal1 and metal2) running at right angles to each other • Feedthrough: refers either to the piece of metal that is used to pass a signal through a cell or to a space in a cell waiting to be used as a feedthrough • Routing the CBIC
Gate-Array-Based ASICs • In gate-array-based ASIC transistors are predefined on the silicon wafer • Base cell – the smallest element that is replicated • Base array – the predefined pattern of transistors • Masked Gate Array (MGA): only layers which define the interconnect between transistors are defined by the designer using custom masks • Designer chooses from a gate-array library pre-designed and pre-characterized logic cells (often called macros) .
Gate-Array-Based ASICs (1/4) • Since only metal interconnections are unique for MGA, we can use prefabricated wafers (with completed transistor layers) • the turnaround time is reduced to a few days or at most a couple of weeks • the costs for all the initial prefabrication steps for MGA are shared for each consumer => the cost of an MGA is reduced compared to FC and CBIC • Types: Channeled, Channelless, and Structured Gate Array
Gate-Array-Based ASICs (2/4) • Channeled gate array • we leave space between the rows of transistors for wiring • Characteristics • only interconnect is customized • the interconnect uses predefined spaces between rows • manufacturing lead time is between 2 days and 2 weeks
Gate-Array-Based ASICs (3/4) • Channelless gate array (sea-of-gates or SOG) • there are no predefined areas set aside for routing between cells • we customize the contact layer that defines the connections between metal1 and transistors • when use area of transistor for routing,do not make any contacts to the device underneath • Characteristics • only some (the top few) mask layers are customized – the interconnect • Transistor layers on the silicon wafer are first fabricated to produce a gate-array template. • Connecting wires are then fabricated on the template to produce a user´s circuit. • The technology is also known as a sea-of-gates technology • manufacturing lead time is between 2 days and 2 weeks
Gate-Array-Based ASICs (4/4) • Structured gate array or embedded gate array • combines features of CBIC and MGA • motivation: MGA has only fixed gate-array base cell;difficult and inefficient implementation of memory • we set aside some IC area and dedicate it to a specific function(contain different cells, more suitable for building memory cells, for example, or complete block, such as a microcontroller) • Characteristics • only some (the top few) mask layers are customized – the interconnect • custom blocks can be embedded • manufacturing lead time is between 2 days and 2 weeks • problem: embedded function is fixed
Semi-custom • Lower layers are fully or partially built • Designers are left with routing of wires and maybe placing some blocks • Benefits • Good performance, good size, less NRE cost than a full-custom implementation (perhaps $10k to $100k) • Drawbacks • Still require weeks to months to develop Vahid & Givargis
Programmable Logic (PLDs, FPGAs) • Pre-manufactured components with programmable interconnect • CAD tools greatly reduce design effort • Low Design Cost / Low NRE Cost / High Unit Cost • Lower Performance
Programmable Logic Devices(1/2) • PLDs • standard ICs, available in standard configurations • sold in high volume to many different customers • PLDs may be configured or programmed to create a part customized to specific application • Characteristics • no customized mask layers or logic cells • fast design turnaround • a single large block of programmable interconnect • a matrix of logic macrocells that usually consists of programmable array logic followed by a flip-flop or latch
Programmable Logic Devices(2/2) • Types of PLDs • PROM: uses metal fuse that can be blown permanently) • EPROM: used programmable MOS transistors whose characteristics are altering by applying a high voltage • PAL – Programmable Array Logic • programmable AND logic array or AND plane, and fixed OR plane • PLA – Programmable Logic Array • programmable AND plane followed by programmable OR plane • Depending on how the PLD is programmed • erasable PLD (EPLD) • mask-programmed PLD
Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) • FPGA • a step above the PLD in complexity;it is usually larger and more complex than a PLD • rapidly growing in importance • Characteristics • none of mask layers are customized • a method for programming basic cellsand the interconnect • the core is regular arrayof programmable basic logic cells (combinational + sequential) • a matrix of programmable interconnectthat surrounds the basic cells • programmable I/O cells around the core • design turnaround is a few hours
Economics of ASICs • Goal • discuss the economics of using ASICs in a product and compare the most popular types of ASICs: an FPGA, an MGA, and a CBIC • Warning! • costs change rapidly and IC industry is notorious for keeping its costs, prices, and pricing strategy closely guarded secrets, so the numbers we will use to illustrate the different components of cost are approximate • Part cost • vary enormously: from a few dollars to several hundreds • FPGAs are more expensive per gate than MGAs • MGAs are more expensive per gate than CBICs
System Specification Circuit Design Architectural Design Physical Design Functional Design Fabrication Logic Design Packaging VLSI Design Cycle (1/9)
VLSI Design Cycle (2/9) • System Specification – Specification of the size, speed, power and functionality of the VLSI system. • Architectural Design – Decisions on the architecture, e.g., RISC/CISC, # of ALU’s, pipeline structure, cache size, etc. Such decisions can provide an accurate estimation of the system performance, die size, power consumption, etc.
VLSI Design Cycle (3/9) • Functional Design – Identify main functional units and their interconnections. No details of implementation.
VLSI Design Cycle (4/9) • Logic Design – Design the logic, e.g., boolean expressions, control flow, word width, register allocation, etc. The outcome is called an RTL (Register Transfer Level) description. RTL is expressed in a HDL (Hardware Description Language), e.g., VHDL and Verilog. X = (AB+CD)(E+F) Y= (A(B+C) + Z + D)
VLSI Design Cycle (5/9) • Circuit Design – Design the circuit including gates, transistors, interconnections, etc. The outcome is called a netlist.
Net list: net1: top.in1 in1.in net2: i1.out xxx.B topin1: top.n1 xxx.xin1 topin2: top.n2 xxx.xin2 botin1: top.n3 xxx.xin3 net3: xxx.out i2.in outnet: i2.out top.out Component list: top: in1=net1 n1=topin1 n2=topin2 n3=topine out=outnet i1: in=net1 out=net2 xxx: xin1=topin1 xin2=topin2 xin3=botin1 B=net2 out=net3 i2: in=net3 out=outnet VLSI Design Cycle (6/9)
VLSI Design Cycle (7/9) Component hierarchy top i1 xxx i2
VLSI Design Cycle (8/9) • Physical Design – Convert the netlist into a geometric representation. The outcome is called a layout.
VLSI Design Cycle (9/9) • Fabrication – Process includes lithography, polishing, deposition, diffusion, etc., to produce a chip. • Packaging – Put together the chips on a PCB (Printed Circuit Board) or an MCM (Multi-Chip Module)