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Comprehensive Positive Youth Development Programs. Brian R. Flay, D.Phil. Professor Oregon State University Corvallis, OR. ASPE/Abt Associates meeting: Strategies for Preventing Youth Risk Behaviors, May 21 2008. Outline. Theories for Positive Youth Development (PYD) ABAN AYA

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Comprehensive positive youth development programs

Comprehensive Positive Youth Development Programs

Brian R. Flay, D.Phil.

Professor

Oregon State University

Corvallis, OR

ASPE/Abt Associates meeting: Strategies for Preventing Youth Risk Behaviors, May 21 2008


Outline
Outline

  • Theories for Positive Youth Development (PYD)

  • ABAN AYA

  • The Positive Action (PA) program

  • Conclusions

2


Theoretical Orientation:A Matrix of Theories

3


The theory of triadic influence
The Theory of Triadic Influence

ENVIRONMENT

GENETICS

IntraPersonal

Environment

Social Situation

Attitudes Toward

Behavior

Self-Efficacy

Social Normative

Beliefs

Intentions/Decision

BEHAVIOR

4


THE THEORY OF TRIADIC INFLUENCE

CULTURAL

SOCIAL

BIOLOGY/

ENVIRONMENT

SITUATION

PERSONALITY

Interactions w/

Social Instit’s

ATTITUDES

SOCIAL

SELF-EFFICACY

TOWARD THE

NORMATIVE

BEHAVIORAL

BEHAVIOR

BELIEFS

CONTROL

Levels of

Intrapersonal Stream

Social/Normative Stream

Cultural/Attitudinal Stream

Causation

Biological/Nature

Nurture/Cultural

Ultimate

Causes

1

2

3

4

5

6

a

f

Social/

Personal

Nexus

c

d

e

b

Sense of

Information/

Interpersonal

Others’

Social

Self/Control

Opportunities

Bonding

Beh & Atts

Competence

Distal

Influences

7

8

9

10

11

12

g

r

p

i

q

h

k

n

m

l

j

o

Expectancies

& Evaluations

Self

Skills:

Motivation

Perceived

Values/

Knowledge/

Determination

Social+General

to Comply

Norms

Evaluations

Expectancies

13

14

15

16

17

18

s

x

u

w

v

t

Affect and

Cognitions

Proximal

19

20

21

Predictors

Decisions

DECISIONS/INTENTIONS

A

G

B

H

C

I

D

E

F

22

Trial Behavior

EXPERIENCES: Expectancies -- Social Reinforcements -- Psychological/Physiological

K

Experiences

23

Related Behaviors

J

5


ENVIRONMENT

Situation

E

E

Person

P P

S

S

Values

Environment

Knowledge

Environment

P

S

E

Value

Social

Bonds

Role

Models

Know

Self-

Control

Com-

petence

Cognitive/Competence Substreams

Affective/Control Substreams

Exp

Eval

Mc

NB

Will + Skill

Att

Att

SNB

Self

Efficacy

SNB

Intentions

Behavior

DEVELOPMENT & TIME

The TTI Developmental-Ecological System

6


Limitations of behavior specific programs

Problem-specific

Usually only one behavior or one skill

Start too late

Upper elementary or middle school

Limited intensity and dose

Often only once a week for 10–20 sessions

Ecologically limited

Usually only in the classroom

Limited effect sizes

Average effect sizes in the 0.2 range

Effects not sustained

Few effects beyond one year, let alone into high school

Limitations of Behavior-Specific Programs

7


Why positive youth development
Why Positive Youth Development?

  • Increasing behavioral problems in schools

    • Including violence, substance use, unsafe sex, and other disciplinary referrals

  • Seems to have worsened with increased attention to instruction for NCLB

  • Link of classroom behavior management to teacher time on task (teaching)

  • Link of student behavior to student time on task (learning)

  • Comprehensive education needs to address Achievement, multiple Behaviors and Character (ABCs)

8


Mapping of ABAN AYA Content onto the TTI

Social Service Coordination

Mentoring

School-wide changes

Parent effectiveness training

Media literacy

Community, Etc.

African-American

Identity &

Sense of Self

African-American

History & Values

Kwanza, Nguzo Saba

Identification of

African-American

role models/heroes

Information/

Opportunities

Sense of

Self/Control

Social

Competence

Interpersonal

Bonding

Others’

Behs & Atts

Interactions w.

Social Instit’s

Values

Education,

Goal setting

Self-control

& Anger

management

Alternatives,

Information &

Consequences

Norms

awareness &

clarification

Social & Self-

management

Skill Building

Attachment

Empathy

Self

Determination

Skills:

Social+General

Motivation

to Comply

Perceived

Norms

Values/

Evaluations

Knowledge/

Expectancies

Self-Efficacy,

Behavioral Control

Attitudes Toward

The Behavior

Social Normative

Beliefs

Decision-making and

Problem-solving skills

Decisions/Intentions

Behavior

9


Aban aya classroom strategies

OVERALL PHILOSOPHY

Developmental and spiral

Culturally appropriate (Afrocentric)

Behavioral skills development

DURATION AND INTENSITY

Three years -- grades 5-7

16-20 sessions grades 5-8

4-5 sessions grades 9 & 10

PARENT INVOLVEMENT

Interactive homework assignments

Evening presentation of "skill skits"

HEALTH EDUCATOR

Professional outsider (Health Educator)

Socratic teaching style

ACTIVITIES

Question box

African and AA Proverbs

“Ujima” Group activities

Role Play - Practice, Correction, Reinforcement

Video presentations

Rap music

ABAN AYA: Classroom Strategies

10


Aban aya intensive school community intervention
ABAN AYA: Intensive School/Community Intervention

  • Comprehensive classroom program

  • Enhanced parent involvement

  • Parent Training/Education

  • School Health Promotion Task Force

  • School-wide staff development

  • Community-Based Organization involvement

  • Institutionalization in schools & communities

11







Basic philosophy theory of action of the positive action program circle
Basic Philosophy level(Theory of Action)of the Positive Action Program & Circle

You feel good about yourself when you do positive actions.Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Positive Psychology

17


The levelPOSITIVE ACTION Program Components

  • K–12 classroom curriculum

    • over 1,200 lessons - using Teacher’s Kits (manuals and materials for each grade), classroom teachers present 15–20-minute lessons

  • Principal’s Kits (Elementary and Secondary)

    • a school-climate program to promote the practice and reinforcement of positive actions in the whole school population (students and staff)

  • Counselor’s Kit

    • used with selected individual students, small groups and families

  • Family Kit

    • contains prepared weekly home lessons paralleling the school program along with school parent-involvement activities

  • Community Kit

    • manuals and materials that align and encourage collaboration of all the environments (schools, families and community) involved in the program

18


Positive action focus units learning goals
Positive Action level Focus Units(Learning Goals)

  • In the classroom curriculum and all other materials, the Positive Action content is taught through six focus units.

    Unit 1:Self-Concept: What It Is, How It’s Formed, and Why It’s Important (Philosophy & Circle)

    Unit 2:Physical and Intellectual Positive Actions for a Healthy Body and Mind (includes motivation to learn)

    Unit 3:Social/Emotional Positive Actions for Managing Yourself Responsibly

    Unit 4:Social/Emotional Positive Actions for Getting Along with Others by Treating Them the Way You Like to Be Treated (Social-Emotional Skills & Character)

    Unit 5:Social/Emotional Positive Actions for Being Honest with Yourself and Others (Mental Health)

    Unit 6:Social/Emotional Positive Actions for Improving Yourself Continually (Setting & Achieving Goals)

19


Mapping of levelPositive Action Content onto the TTI

CLASSROOM SCHOOL FAMILY COMMUNITY

Positive Action Program Components and Lessons (Exist in each Component)

IntraPersonal (Individual)

Social Context/ Situations

Socio-Cultural Environment

Genetics Biology Personality

Family School Neighborhood Peers

Mass Media Regulations Religion Economy

Positive Role Models

Feelings Empathy

Self Concept

Social Bonding/ Attachment

Others’ Behavior & Approval

General Values

Information Environment

Sense of Self

Social Competence

Health & Drug Info

Values

How to Treat Others

Self Management

Time, Energy, Talents, Money, Anger

How You Like To Be Treated

Self- Determination

Social Skills

Others’ Expectations

Desire to Please

Evaluation of Outcomes

Expected Consequences

Alternative

Consequences

Communica -tion Skills

Conflict Resolution

Social & Emotional Health

Social Normative Beliefs

Attitudes Toward the Behavior

Self-Efficacy

Thinking Skills Creativity Decision-Making Problem-Solving

INTENTIONS/DECISIONS

BEHAVIOR

Experiences from Behavior

20


Logic theoretic model of the expected effects of the positive action program
Logic/Theoretic Model of the Expected Effects of the levelPositive Action Program

Program Components

Immediate Outcomes

Climate Development, Family Kit,

Teacher/Staff Training,

K–12 Instruction Curriculum, Drug Education Supplements,

Community Kit,

Counseling Kit

* Improved relationships among school administrators, teachers, parents & community.

* Improved classroom management.

* Increased involvement of school with

parents & community.

Improved

Learning

Environment

Expected Impact

Expected Effects

PA Unit

Fewer Disciplinary

Problems; Reduced

Substance Use;

Less Violence

Attitudes Toward Behaviors,

Social Normative Beliefs,

Self-Efficacy

  • Improved character/self-concept

  • Learning/Study skills

  • Self-Management

  • Interpersonal/social skills

  • Self-honesty, responsibility

  • Goal setting, future orientation

Improved

Social

and

Character

Development

Improved School

Attendance, Grades

and Test Scores

21




Hawaii: Lifetime Prevalence of Substance Abuse, Violent Behaviors, & Sexual Activity: 5th grade (no significant interactions)

--------------SUBSTANCE ABUSE-------

---SERIOUS VIOLENT BEHAVIORS---

SEX

26


Hawaii Trial: Behaviors,

27


Hawaii teacher ratings dose response relationship
Hawaii Teacher Ratings Behaviors, Dose-Response Relationship

28



30 Behaviors,


31 Behaviors,


Chicago: Behaviors,


Chicago: Behaviors,

33


Chicago effects on school level reports of misconducts and suspensions
Chicago: Effects on School-Level reports of misconducts and suspensions

In ANCOVA models predicting year 4 differences from year 1 levels and condition,

differences at year 4 are marginally significant for misconducts (p = .054)

and significant for suspensions (p = .037) using one-tailed tests.

34


Chicago: Program Effects on Standardized Test Scores suspensionsMultiple baseline data and post-program effects

35


Moderation: Problem Behavior by % Minority: Nevada: suspensions

Sum of Felonies, Misdemeanors, Department Rules, School Rules

3

2.5

2.5

2

1.5

Mean Number Problem Behaviors per Student per Year

0.9

0.8

1

0.4

0.5

0.3

0.0

0

-0.5

PA

No PA

<25% Minority

26-49% Minority

>50% Minority

Matched Control or PA School

36


Hawaii: Interaction of suspensionsPA and Student Poverty(Free/Reduced Lunch)on Discipline: Sum of Felonies, Misdemeanors, Department Rules, School Rules

PA

No PA

<10% Poverty

(Free/Reduced Lunch)

10-15% Poverty

(Free/Reduced Lunch)

>15% Poverty

(Free/Reduced Lunch)

Interaction significant at p<.01

Matched Control or PA School

37


Conclusions
CONCLUSIONS suspensions

  • Problem behaviors have common causes

  • Programs that target distal and ultimate influences can change the trajectories of multiple behaviors, including substance use, violence and sexual behaviors

    • Aban Aya and Positive Action are just two examples

  • Programs probably need to start early in a child’s life and be sustained, especially through critical developmental-life transitions

  • School-wide, family and community involvement can make and important difference

  • Such programs have their strongest effects for those who most need them

39


Future research pa and pyd
Future Research – suspensionsPA and PYD

  • Investigate potential differential impacts of programs based on student gender, child risk level, etc.

  • Investigate whether schools with different levels in the quality of implementation yield different “impacts”

  • Validate SACD scales with observed student behavior

  • Examine impact of PA as student cohort progresses into upper elementary grades (grades 6-8)

    • Critical transitional period within emotional, behavioral, and academic domains

  • Need evaluations of the components of complex programs

  • Compare effectiveness of different PYD programs

40


Future work needs the bigger picture
Future Work/Needs – suspensionsThe bigger picture

  • Larger scale trials

    • ICCs for attitudes (.03-.1) and behavior (.01-.05) are generally smaller than for achievement (.15-.2)

    • Still need Ns of 10-20 per condition rather than 7

  • Improved measures of integrity and dosage delivered and received

    • Teacher, student and observer reports

    • Contractual reporting systems?

  • Longer term follow-ups

    • Effects take several years to even start emerging

    • Prior work suggests important long-term effects are possible

  • Methods of analysis to accommodate differential implementation

    • Propensity scoring, CACE, instrumental variable

41


Funding and Collaborators suspensions

  • Aban Aya:

    • National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH

    • UIC: 14 co-investigators (see papers)

  • PA-HAWAII:

    • National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH

    • Hawaii: Howard Humphreys, Jonathan Wang

    • OSU: Alan Acock, Sam Vuchinich, Michael Beets

    • UIC: Richard Campbell

  • PA-CHICAGO:

    • Institute of Education Science, U.S. Department of Education

    • UIC: David DuBois, Peter Ji, Michael Berbaum

    • OSU: Alan Acock, Sam Vuchinich, Ben Li

    • Correspondence concerning this presentation should be addressed to Brian R. Flay, D.Phil., Principle Investigator, Department of Public Health, 254 Waldo Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330, [email protected]

42


Sacd disclaimer statement
SACD disclaimer statement: suspensions

The Social and Character Development (SACD) research program funded by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES), U.S. Department of Education includes a national evaluation study conducted by Mathematica Policy Research (MPR), and complementary research studies conducted by each grantee. The findings reported here are based on the complementary research activities carried out by Brian Flay, Oregon State University, and David L. DuBois, University of Illinois at Chicago, under the SACD program. These findings may differ from the results reported for the SACD national evaluation study. The findings presented in this conference presentation are based on a smaller sample size of children, classrooms, and teachers, utilized a different set of outcome measures, and sought to answer complementary research questions. The content of this presentation does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the SACD Consortium including IES, CDC, and MPR, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Education.

43


Have a positive action day
Have a suspensionsPositive Action Day!

44


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