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CSRU 1100 Structures of Computer Science. Chapter 2 Logic . 1. Smullyan’s Island Puzzle. You meet two inhabitants of Smullyan’s Island (where each one is either a liar or a truth-teller). A says, “Either B is lying or I am” B says, “A is lying” Who is telling the truth ? . 2.

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### CSRU 1100 Structures of Computer Science

Chapter 2

Logic

CS1100

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• You meet two inhabitants of Smullyan’s Island (where each one is either a liar or a truth-teller).

• A says, “Either B is lying or I am”

• B says, “A is lying”

• Who is telling the truth ?

CS1100

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Numerical Algebra

Identify important parts of the numerical problem, assigning them to variables.

Use algebraic laws and formulas to solve the problem.

Symbolic Logic

Identify important parts of a logical argument, assign them to logical variables.

Use laws and formulas of symbolic logic to determine whether or not the logical argument is valid.

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• A proposition is a statement which is either true or false

• For example:

• Ten is less than seven.

• There are life forms on other planets in the universe.

• A set of cardinality n has 2n subsets.

• The followings are not propositions:

• x2 = 16

• How are you ?

• x+y<10

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• Truth value of a proposition is either true or false.

• We use logical variables, usually a lower case letter, to represent a proposition

• p = “Ten is smaller than seven”

• p has truth value of false, i.e., F.

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• Negation ¬ applies to a single proposition

• If p is true, then ¬ p is false

• If p is false, then ¬ p is true

Truth Table of Negation Operator

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• Example

p = It will rain tomorrow.

¬ p = It will not rain tomorrow.

• If it’s true that it will rain tomorrow, it is false that it will not rain tomorrow.

• If it’s false that it will rain tomorrow, it is true that it will not rain tomorrow.

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The conjunction is true if and only if both of two simple propositions are true; otherwise it’s false.

We use Λ to connect the two simple propositions:

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I am a female andyou are a male.

• p = I am a female.

• q = You are a male.

• p Λ q = I am a female and you are a male.

CS1100

The conjunction is true whenever one or more of two simple propositions are true; otherwise it’s false.

The conjunction is false if and only if both of two simple propositions are false.

We use ν to connect the two simple propositions:

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The computer is fast or the printer is fast.

• p = The computer is fast

• q = The printer is fast

• p ν q = The computer is fast or the printer is fast.

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Inclusive OR is true when both of two simple compositions are true.

Exclusive OR (XOR) is true if and only if two simple propositions are not true or false at the same; otherwise it’s false.

We use ⊕ to connect the two simple propositions:

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You may have coffee or you may have tea.

• p = You may have coffee.

• q = You may have tea.

• p ⊕ q = You may have coffee or you may have tea.

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• English words connecting the propositions might be “but”, “nevertheless”, “unfortunately”, …. For example:

• Although the villain is French, the movie is good.

• The hero is not American, but the villain is French.

• As long as it means that both simple propositions are true, it’s a conjunction, i.e., AND. In proposition forms:

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• Introduce letters to stand for simple propositions, and write the following statements as complicated propositions:

• Either the food is good or the service is excellent.

p v q

• He does the homework himself, or his girl friend helps him to do the homework.

p ⊕ q

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• One can connect propositions using “and”, “or”, “not”, “only if” …to form complicated proposition:

• It will not rain tomorrow.

• Fishes are jumping and the cotton is high.

• Truth value of compound proposition depends on the truth value of the simple propositions involved.

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Connectives (¬, Λ,ν, etc.) can be applied to build complicated propositions, e.g.: ¬(p Λ q),

(¬p) ν (p Λ q)

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• Parenthesized sub-expressions are evaluated first.

• Operations have a precedence hierarchy:

• Negations (¬) are done first.

• Logical conjunction (Λ) are done next.

• Inclusive OR and Exclusive OR(XOR) (ν, ⊕) are done next.

• Other operations are done last.

• For tie, follow left-to-right order.

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• First fill in all possible input values

• For 2 logical variables, p, q, there are 4 possible input values

• Next, create a column for each complicated propositions following evaluation order.

• Third, fill in the columns one by one, starting from simple ones

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• Write the following statement as complicated propositions and build the truth table for it:

• Neither the food is good nor the service is excellent.

(¬p) Λ (¬q)

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• Complicated proposition

• If it rains, then the ground is wet.

• Logic implication

• If p, then q

• If part: hypothesis; Then part: conclusion

• If the hypothesis happens, then the conclusion happens.

• We use ⇒ to denote conditional operation.

p ⇒ q

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“If I am elected, then I will lower the taxes next year”.

• p: I am elected.

• q: I will lower the taxes next year.

• When p ⇒ q is T :

• If p is true, then q must be true.

• If p is false, we can derive anything !

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• Under what conditions, the promise is broken, i.e., the whole statement is false ?

• When he is elected, but did not lower the taxes next year!

• For all other scenarios, he keep promise, i.e. above statement is true.

• He is elected, and lower the taxes next year

• He is not elected, the taxes are lowered next year.

• He is not elected, the taxes are not lowered next year.

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• If p, then q.

• If “it rains”, then “the ground is wet”.

• p only if q.

• “It rains” only if “the ground is wet”.

• p implies q.

• “It rains” implies “the ground is wet”.

• p is sufficient for q.

• “It rains” is a sufficient condition for “the ground is wet”.

• q is necessary for p.

• “The ground is wet” is necessary for “It rains”.

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Exercises: Write following in propositional forms

A good diet is a necessary condition for a healthy cat.

p⇒ q

The central switch goes down is a sufficient condition for network failure.

p⇒ q

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• Parenthesized sub-expressions are evaluated first.

• Operations have a precedence hierarchy:

• Negations (¬) are done first.

• Logical conjunction (Λ) are done next.

• Inclusive OR and Exclusive OR(XOR) (ν, ⊕) are done next.

• The conditional-type operations (⇒) are done last.

• For tie, follow left-to-right order, except for the conditional operator ⇒, which is done in a right-to-left order. That is, p⇒ q ⇒r is interpreted as p ⇒ (q⇒ r)

CS1100

• Using letter f, b, s for the simple propositions, translate following into propositional forms:

• Plentiful fish is a sufficient condition for bears to be happy.

• Bears are happy only if there are plentiful fish.

• Unhappy bears is a necessary condition for heavy snow.

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• Translate into English:

1.

2.

Where A: the villain is French.

B: the hero is American.

C: the heroine is British

D: the movie is good.

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• Two propositional forms p and q are logically equivalent, we write p Ξ q.

• p is true if and only if q is true.

• Two equivalent forms have same truth value no matter what values the variables take.

• To demonstrate two propositions are equivalent, show they have same truth-table.

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• Double Negation

• Negation

• Idempotent

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• Commutative

• Associative

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• Distributive

• DeMorgan’s Laws

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• You meet two inhabitants of Smullyan’s Island (where each one is either a liar or a truth-teller).

• A says, “Either B is lying or I am”

• B says, “A is lying”

• Who is telling the truth ?

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• The key: each inhabitant is either a liar or a truth-teller. A liar always lies; a truth-teller always tells the truth.

• Introduce simple propositions:

• a: A is a truth-teller, i.e., A is telling the truth

• b: B is a truth-teller

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Express statements as propositional forms

• a: A is a truth-teller, i.e., A is telling the truth

• b: B is a truth-teller

• A says, “Either B is lying or I am”

(¬b) ⊕ (¬a)

• B says, “A is lying”

¬a

• CS1100

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A is lying.

Either B is lying or I am.

Which scenarios, if any, are consistent, i.e., truth-tellers told

the truth, and liars lied ?

* A is truth-teller, B is a liar.

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• You meet one inhabitant of Smullyan’s Island (where each inhabitant is either a liar or a truth-teller).

• He says, “I am lying.”

• Is he a truth-teller ?

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