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Arranging Consequences that Increase Behavior. Reinforcers. Primary Secondary Natural Contrived. Positive Reinforcement. Contingent presentation of a stimulus, immediately following a response, that INCREASES the future rate and/or probability of the response

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positive reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
  • Contingent presentation of a stimulus, immediately following a response, that INCREASES the future rate and/or probability of the response
  • Refers to the relationship between the behavior and the consequence
positive reinforcer
Positive Reinforcer

“the consequential stimulus event itself. It:

  • Increases or maintains the future rate and/or probability of occurrence of a behavior
  • Is administered contingently upon the production of a desired or requested behavior
  • Is administered immediately following the production of the desired or requested behavior
9 step sequence for selecting reinforcers
9-step sequence for selecting reinforcers
  • Consider age, interests, and appetites of the person whose behaviors you with to strengthen;
  • Consider the behavior you wish to strengthen through reinforcement
  • List potential reinforcers
  • The Premack Principle
  • Consider asking the person
  • Consider novel reinforcers
  • Consider reinforcers that are natural
  • Select the reinforcer(s) you will use
  • Make a record of the behavior
6 ways to delay satiation
6 Ways to Delay Satiation
  • Assign a particular reinforcer to each instructional task
  • Shorten the instructional session in which the edible reinforcer is being used
  • Switch to an alternative reinforcer
  • Decrease the size of pieces
  • Have an array of reinforcers
  • Reinforce every third correct response
other reinforcers
Other Reinforcers
  • Generalized reinforcer: when a reinforcer is associated with a variety of behaviors or with access to a variety of other primary or secondary reinforcers
  • Social reinforcer: a secondary reinforcer used almost unconsciously and unsystematically by teachers and includes demonstrations of approval or attention
token economy reinforcement program
Token Economy Reinforcement Program
  • It is a symbolic reinforcement system where students receive tokens for specific appropriate behaviors, which may be exchanged for objects or activities that have been identified as reinforcing.
  • As students learn to associate the tokens with the purchase of reinforcers, the tokens themselves become reinforcing.
what students need to know about a token system
What students need to know about a token system
  • What behaviors are required
  • What are the backup reinforcers
  • The cost of each backup reinforcer
  • When tokens can be exchanged for the backup reinforcers
sample token system
Sample Token System
  • Behavior Required: Raise your hand and provide answer or contribution to class discussion…onlywhen called upon.
  • Back up reinforcers: candy
  • Cost: one ticket per piece of candy
  • When can tokens be exchanged?: at the end of class
schedules of reinforcement
Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Continuous (CRF): (1:1)
  • Intermittent:
    • Ratio schedule
      • Fixed
      • Variable
    • Interval schedule:
      • Fixed
      • Variable
  • Response-Duration
intermittent schedule of reinforcement
Intermittent Schedule of Reinforcement
  • Ratio Schedule: reinforcer delivered per NUMBER
    • Fixed: Only after a specific number of tasks are completed
    • Variable: Delivered following an average number of occurrences
  • Interval Schedule: reinforcer delivered per TIME
    • Fixed: Only after a specific number of minutes have passed
    • Variable: Delivered following an average number of minutes
negative reinforcement cycle
Negative Reinforcement Cycle
  • Student is confronted with an aversive stimulus
  • Student engages in inappropriate behavior
  • Teacher removes aversive stimulus
  • Student is negatively reinforced for the inappropriate behavior
  • Next time the student in confronted by the aversive stimulus, the cycle is repeated