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What is Chemistry. Chemistry ‑ the study of matter and the changes matter undergoes. Matter ‑ something that has mass and takes up space (has a volume). States of Matter. Law of Conservation of Mass & Energy-

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what is chemistry
What is Chemistry
  • Chemistry ‑ the study of matter and the changes matter undergoes.
  • Matter ‑ something that has mass and takes up space (has a volume).
states of matter
States of Matter
  • Law of Conservation of Mass & Energy-
    • Matter can never be created nor destroyed; neither gained nor lost. It must be conserved.
characteristics of matter
Characteristics of Matter

Chemical Properties

  • Ability for a substance to undergo a chemical change (new stuff)
  • Examples.
    • Ability to burn
    • Ability to rust
    • Ability to sour
physical properties
Physical Properties

Physical Properties observed or measured

without altering makeup of substance (still the same


  • Examples
    • mass
    • weight
    • volume
    • color
    • solubility
    • luster
    • melting point
    • boiling point
intensive vs extensive properties

depends on amount of matter present






doesn't depend on amount present





melting point

boiling point

Intensive vs. Extensive Properties
classification of matter1
Classification of Matter

Pure Substances

  • Elements- 118 on Periodic Table organized according to properties.
  • Named after famous scientists, countries, states, and planets
  • Abbreviation (Element symbols) begin with first letter capitalized.
  • Examples
    • Al - aluminum
    • O - oxygen
    • Hg - mercury (Latin hydrargyum)
    • Au - gold (Latin Aurum)
    • Cl - chlorine
classification of matter2
Classification of Matter

Compounds: element combined in a

chemical rxn (reaction).

  • Can not be physically separated.
  • Many have both common names and scientific names.
  • Abbreviations (Chemical formulas) use element symbols
  • Examples
    • NaCl sodium chloride salt
    • NaOH sodium hydroxide Drano
    • NaHCO3 sodium bicarbonate Baking Soda
    • H2O Dihydrogen monoxide Water

Separation by Physical Means

  • Filtration
  • Evaporation
  • Distillation
  • Chromatography

Pure Substances



classification of matter3
Classification of Matter

Mixtures: can be physically separated

  • Methods of separation
    • Filtration – solid/liquid
    • Evaporation or crystallization – dissolved substance
    • Distillation – purifies a liquid or separates 2 liquids, based on different boiling points
    • Chromatography – separates a solution by allowing it to flow along a stationary substance (liquid, gas, paper).
classification of matter4
Classification of Matter

Types of Mixtures

Homogeneous - the same composition throughout

  • Examples:
    • Pure air or Solutions (Kool-aid)
    • Alloys – Brass, Steel, Silverware

Heterogeneous- varying composition throughout

  • Examples:
    • Chocolate Chip Cookies
    • River water
types of changes
Types of Changes

Substances can undergo three types of


  • Physical
  • Chemical
  • Nuclear
  • Physical- though appearance (color, shape) may change, the mass will still be the same since the molecules remain the same
  • Examples:
    • Bending
    • Tearing
    • Melting
separation cont d
Separation Cont’d

Compounds can only be separated chemically into elements




  • Chemical- (Rxn) the structure of the substance changes. The new substance possesses different chemical and physical properties
  • Examples:
    • Burning
    • Molding
    • Souring
parts of chemical rxn
Parts of Chemical RXN

2 parts to a Chemical Rxn

  • Reactants  Products
  • Starting substances yields new substances with new properties.

Three Indicators of Chemical Rxn’s

  • Formation of heat and/or light (energy)
  • Formation of a new gas (bubbles or fizzes)
  • Formation of a precipitate (solid formed for two solutions)
  • the structure of the nucleus changes. The energy involved is 6 to 8 times the Magnitude of a chemical or physical change.