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What is Chemistry. Chemistry ‑ the study of matter and the changes matter undergoes. Matter ‑ something that has mass and takes up space (has a volume). States of Matter. Law of Conservation of Mass & Energy-

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what is chemistry
What is Chemistry
  • Chemistry ‑ the study of matter and the changes matter undergoes.
  • Matter ‑ something that has mass and takes up space (has a volume).
states of matter
States of Matter
  • Law of Conservation of Mass & Energy-
    • Matter can never be created nor destroyed; neither gained nor lost. It must be conserved.
characteristics of matter
Characteristics of Matter

Chemical Properties

  • Ability for a substance to undergo a chemical change (new stuff)
  • Examples.
    • Ability to burn
    • Ability to rust
    • Ability to sour
physical properties
Physical Properties

Physical Properties observed or measured

without altering makeup of substance (still the same

stuff)

  • Examples
    • mass
    • weight
    • volume
    • color
    • solubility
    • luster
    • melting point
    • boiling point
intensive vs extensive properties
Extensive

depends on amount of matter present

Examples

mass

weight

volume

Intensive:

doesn't depend on amount present

Examples

color

solubility

luster

melting point

boiling point

Intensive vs. Extensive Properties
classification of matter1
Classification of Matter

Pure Substances

  • Elements- 118 on Periodic Table organized according to properties.
  • Named after famous scientists, countries, states, and planets
  • Abbreviation (Element symbols) begin with first letter capitalized.
  • Examples
    • Al - aluminum
    • O - oxygen
    • Hg - mercury (Latin hydrargyum)
    • Au - gold (Latin Aurum)
    • Cl - chlorine
classification of matter2
Classification of Matter

Compounds: element combined in a

chemical rxn (reaction).

  • Can not be physically separated.
  • Many have both common names and scientific names.
  • Abbreviations (Chemical formulas) use element symbols
  • Examples
    • NaCl sodium chloride salt
    • NaOH sodium hydroxide Drano
    • NaHCO3 sodium bicarbonate Baking Soda
    • H2O Dihydrogen monoxide Water
separation
Separation

Separation by Physical Means

  • Filtration
  • Evaporation
  • Distillation
  • Chromatography

Pure Substances

Mixtures

Separation

classification of matter3
Classification of Matter

Mixtures: can be physically separated

  • Methods of separation
    • Filtration – solid/liquid
    • Evaporation or crystallization – dissolved substance
    • Distillation – purifies a liquid or separates 2 liquids, based on different boiling points
    • Chromatography – separates a solution by allowing it to flow along a stationary substance (liquid, gas, paper).
classification of matter4
Classification of Matter

Types of Mixtures

Homogeneous - the same composition throughout

  • Examples:
    • Pure air or Solutions (Kool-aid)
    • Alloys – Brass, Steel, Silverware

Heterogeneous- varying composition throughout

  • Examples:
    • Chocolate Chip Cookies
    • River water
types of changes
Types of Changes

Substances can undergo three types of

changes:

  • Physical
  • Chemical
  • Nuclear
physical
Physical
  • Physical- though appearance (color, shape) may change, the mass will still be the same since the molecules remain the same
  • Examples:
    • Bending
    • Tearing
    • Melting
separation cont d
Separation Cont’d

Compounds can only be separated chemically into elements

Elements

Compounds

Separation

chemical
Chemical
  • Chemical- (Rxn) the structure of the substance changes. The new substance possesses different chemical and physical properties
  • Examples:
    • Burning
    • Molding
    • Souring
parts of chemical rxn
Parts of Chemical RXN

2 parts to a Chemical Rxn

  • Reactants  Products
  • Starting substances yields new substances with new properties.

Three Indicators of Chemical Rxn’s

  • Formation of heat and/or light (energy)
  • Formation of a new gas (bubbles or fizzes)
  • Formation of a precipitate (solid formed for two solutions)
nuclear
Nuclear
  • the structure of the nucleus changes. The energy involved is 6 to 8 times the Magnitude of a chemical or physical change.