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Teaching in the Red Zone: How to Increase Academic Engaged Time During Supplemental Instruction 1st Annual Louisiana PBS Conference Session 34A. Gregory J. Benner, Ph.D. Associate Professor University of Washington-Tacoma (253) 692-4621 The Road Ahead.

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Teaching in the Red Zone: How to Increase Academic Engaged Time During Supplemental Instruction1st Annual Louisiana PBS ConferenceSession 34A

Gregory J. Benner, Ph.D.

Associate Professor

University of Washington-Tacoma

(253) 692-4621

the road ahead
The Road Ahead
  • Understanding the youth we serve
  • The foundations of good instructional environments
    • Supplemental instruction matched to need
      • Diagnosis, high quality instruction, daily monitoring
    • Good communication
    • Guidelines and expectations
    • Monitoring
    • Consequences
  • Simple PBIS during supplemental instruction in the red zone
  • Have you ever been misunderstood?
  • In what ways are students with behavioral problems misunderstood?
  • Key idea: Improving the engagement of students with behavioral problems starts with understanding these students.
think functionally
Think Functionally
  • Escape
    • Does the kid have an academic skill deficit? (Can’t Do)
    • Does the kid have the skills to do the task, but is just not doing it? (Won’t Do)
  • Access
    • Peer attention
    • Adult attention
coercion theory patterson 1982 1995
Coercion Theory (Patterson, 1982; 1995)








Threat of Consequence

Threat of Consequence

Parent, Teacher, or Therapist

Children become aware that if they continue to misbehave or respond to the parent’s coercive behavior with severe disruptive behavior they can shape parental (or teacher & therapists) behavior for their own benefit.

diagnose the academic issue
Diagnose the Academic Issue
  • In-depth information about students’ skills and instructional needs
    • Diagnostics
      • Reading: DAR, WJ-III Broad Reading, GRADE
      • Math: GMADE, WJ-III Broad Math
  • Homogenous groups based on instructional needs
    • Use placement test to help with grouping
  • Begin with the most foundational skill in need of improvement
explicit delivery of supplementary instruction
Explicit Delivery of Supplementary Instruction

Accountability and group alerting procedures

Effective error correction

Effect student questioning procedures


School 3 (14 Teachers)

Fidelity and Gain






Fidelity Percentage
















Broad Reading Gain

clear behavior expectations
Clear Behavior Expectations
  • Example: High School Remedial Math
  • Start of class
      • Materials ready (Be responsible)
        • Pencils sharpened, book on desk, notebook under desk.
      • Personal issues taken care of (Be responsible)
        • Bathroom, meds taken, enough food and drink.
      • Hands and feet to self (Be safe)
      • Voice level at completely quiet (Be respectful)
      • Ready to start CBM probe (Be respectful & responsible)
        • CBM packet open, pencil in hand, eyes on me.
positive behavioral supports during red zone instruction
Positive Behavioral Supports During Red Zone Instruction

Student-Teacher Learning Game

Good Behavior Game

Think Time/Stop Time

Behavior Report Cards

Administrative Interventions


To increase on-task behavior

      • Help students to manage their own behavior
      • Help students to support each other
  • To redirect students

What is needed

to implement

the game?


Set of positive and observable expectations to guide student behavior

  • Small accessible white board (or flip chart) and marker


The Game


Establish and teach expectations for instructional situations

    • Positively worded and few in number
example expectations large and small group
Example Expectations: Large and Small Group
  • Demonstrate learner position: Students’ backs are against the back of the chair, feet are on the floor in front of the chair, and hands are together on desk/lap.
  • Look at the focus of instruction: Students’ eyes are on the instructional materials, teacher, or peer.
  • Answer on signal: Students start and stop on teacher signal (group and individual).
  • Responses are teacher-initiated and subject focused: Students’ responses are only teacher-initiated and subject focused.
  • Use classroom voice: Students use six-inch voices.



15 pts.

30 pts.

good behavior game
Good Behavior Game
  • Introduce the Game to the class.
    • Divide class into two or more teams.
    • The team with the fewest points wins.
    • Both teams win if they earn no more than a certain number of points (e.g., 4 points maximum per day).
  • Put the Game into effect.
    • Instruction as usual.
    • Instructor is also noting and publicly recording any negative points incurred by either team.
    • Keep a weekly tally of points for each team.
primary elements of think time
Primary Elements of Think Time

Precision request

Antiseptic bounding condition



Lunch time Intervention

  • Use
    • For exceeding a set frequency of classroom management procedures
  • Behavioral Expectations
    • Timeframe
    • Student
    • Supervisor
behavioral report cards
Behavioral Report Cards
problem solving plan
Problem Solving Plan
  • Teaching students how to reach a successful conclusion to a problematic situation.
  • Complete this when you and student are calm
  • Five steps
    • Identify the problem (e.g., won’t do in-class work)
    • Defining what the problem is
    • Generate alternatives without regard to consequences
    • Decision-making—consider possible consequences of each solution
    • Verification—determine if the alternative worked
evidence based behavioral programs
Evidence-Based Behavioral Programs
  • Blueprints for Violence Prevention
  • DOE: Safe, Disciplined and Drug Free Expert Panel Exemplary and Promising Programs
  • OJJDP Model Programs Guide
  • Helping America’s Youth
  • National Center for Mental Health Promotion and Youth Violence Prevention
  • SAMHSA’s Registry of Evidence-Based Practices
  • Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General