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Energy, environment, justice. Chris Greacen Sheila Bijoor Palang Thai Outline. Problems Global warming (only part of the “energy-environment crisis”) Causes Impacts Solutions? Saving energy Renewable energy. Getting hotter:1000 years of global temperature.

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energy environment justice

Energy, environment, justice

Chris Greacen

Sheila Bijoor

Palang Thai

  • Problems
    • Global warming (only part of the “energy-environment crisis”)
      • Causes
      • Impacts
  • Solutions?
    • Saving energy
    • Renewable energy

Global temperature dramatically increases, especially during the last decade and scientists predicts the future surface temperature to be …

During the last 100 years


Projections in

the next 100 years

ในรอบ 1,000 ปีที่ผ่านมา

Source: IPCC, 2001 See

carbon dioxide the last 10 000 years
Carbon Dioxide - The Last 10,000 years

Measurements are shown from ice cores (symbols with different colours for different studies) and atmospheric samples

(red lines).

cumulative co 2 emissions 1900 1999
Cumulative CO2 emissions 1900-1999

From fossil fuel combustion and land-use change

From WRI (Baumert and Kete 2002)

per capita income ppp 1999
Per capita income (PPP) 1999

From WRI (Baumert and Kete 2002)

the champagne glass
The Champagne Glass

UNDP, Human Development Report, 1998

electricity use in thailand in 2003
Electricity use in Thailand in 2003

Source: Figure 19, Statistical Report Fiscal Year 2003 Power Forecast and Statistics Analysis Department System Control and Operation Division. Report No. SOD-FSSR-0404-05





แม่เมาะ 2,625 MW

เทินหินบุน 214 MW

สิริกิติ์ 500 MW

ภูมิพล 736 MW

น้ำพอง 710 MW


ลานกระบือ 169 MW


ปากมูล 136 MW

เขาแหลม 300 MW

ห้วยเฮาะ 133 MW


ลำตะคอง 500 MW

ศรีนครินทร์ 720 MW

วังน้อย 2,031 MW

  • EPEC 350 MW

บางปะกง 3,675 MW

บ่อวิน 713 MW

  • TECO 700 MW
  • ราชบุรี
  • 3,645 MW

ระยอง 1,232 MW


700 MW


เขต กทม.

พระนครใต้ 2,288 MW

หนองจอก 366 MW


  • ขนอม 824 MW

รัชชประภา 240 MW

ระบบส่ง 230,000 โวลต์

ระบบส่ง 500,000 โวลต์

  • สุราษฎร์ 240 MW


บางลาง 72 MW

some effects of climate change

1993 (2536)

2000 (2543)

Some effects of climate change…

Snow on Mt. Kilmanjaro (Kenya) almost all melted within the past 7 years

Source: IUCN

polar ice melting

Ice melting areas

Polar ice melting

Albedo Effect

กรีนแลนด์ บริเวณขั้วโลกเหนือ

Source of picture:


Source: Government of South Australia, 2005 See


Impact on Bangladesh of sea rise of 1.5 meters

Source: UNEP/GRID See

economic impacts especially from extreme weather
Economic impacts -- especially from extreme weather

“2005 Atlantic hurricane season has clearly been the most active season on record”


Source: BBC UK, 2005; UNEP, 2006 See

climate change used to justify big dams
Climate change used to justify…BIG DAMS
  • Ecological/social damage from flooding
  • Decimated fish stocks
  • Especially impacts rural politically disempowered
  • (Often does cause climate change)
  • Expensive
  • Waste deadly for at least 250,000 years
  • We can’t figure out how to dispose of waste
  • Unavoidable weapons linkages
global warming is only a tiny part of the energy ecology society story
Global warming is only a tiny part of the energy/ecology/society story…
  • One large shopping mall (average consumption): 10 Megawatt
  • Pak Mun Dam (average production): 40 Megawatt
    • Fish stocks decimated
    • 10 years of protest, 5000 villagers
    • Communities forcefully relocated
are there alternatives yes
Are there alternatives? … yes…
  • Save energy
  • Use clean (renewable) energy
real buddhist values
(Real) Buddhist values
  • Moderation / simplicity
  • Emphasis on “being” rather than “having”
saving electricity is cheaper than generating it
Saving electricity is cheaper than generating it

Demand Side Management (saving electricity)

Source: The World Bank (1993)


GHGs emissions from

household and daily activities

ที่มา : Australian Greenhouse Office (2003) See


ปลูกสร้างอาคารให้สอดคล้องกับทิศการรับความร้อน ปลูกต้นไม้ให้ความร่มรื่น และช่วยลดอุณหภูมิ


ที่มา : Australian Greenhouse Office (2003)


Source: Presentation by Ministry of Energy at Energy Strategy Workshop chaired by Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. 28 August 2003

very little electricity comes from renewables
Very little electricity comes from renewables…

0.6% from Renewable Energy

Source: EGAT PDP 2003


Old way

New way

Power plant

Power plant


Wind power




Energy efficient end-use

biogas from pig farms

Reduces air and water pollution

Produces fertilizer

Produces electricity

Biogas from Pig Farms
korat waste to energy biogas
Korat Waste to Energy - biogas
  • Uses waste water from cassava to make methane
  • Produces gas for all factory heat (30 MW thermal) + 3 MW of electricity
  • Earns high market returns
  • Developer estimates 300 MW from waste water + 800 MW from wet cake
korat waste to energy biogas1
Korat Waste to Energy - biogas
  • 3 x 1 MW Jenbacher gas generators
micro hydroelectricity

Source: Inversin, A. R. (1986). Micro-Hydropower Sourcebook.


Kre Khi village Microhydro

Estimated power: 500 Watts

Head: 8 meters

Flow: 20 liters/second

Total Installed cost: $2500


E Wi Jo village microhydro

Estimated power: 750 Watts

Head: 20 meters

Flow: 20 liters/second

Total installed cost: <$2000

community micro hydro
Community micro-hydro
  • Mae Kam Pong village, Chiang Mai
  • 40 kW
  • Community cooperative
  • Expected gross revenues: $750/month
what to do
What to do?
  • Get informed
  • Get involved:
    • Public hearings
    • Help make alternatives happen
    • Save energy

Meeting to discuss village micro-hydro renewable energy project in Mae Kam Pong Village, Chiang Mai

thank you
Thank you!

For more information contact:

Tel. (+011) 662-672-0364

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